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courts week 12 notes

by: Khaila Coissiere

courts week 12 notes Crju 3700

Khaila Coissiere
GPA 3.74

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chapter 14 chapter 15
American criminal court
Prof Johnson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3700 at Georgia State University taught by Prof Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see American criminal court in Criminal Justice at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 03/31/16
Chapter 15 – Sentencing Decisions Thursday, March 31 st Courtroom Workgroups and Sentencing Decisions  Probation offer o Supervision o Presentence investigation  Recommendations  Sentence  Level of supervision  Conditions of supervision  Treatment plan  Community resources  Prosecutor o Count or charge bargain   Limit maximum penalty o Aggravating factors ­ seriousness of crime, use of weapon,  personal injury to  victim, harsher sentence o Mitigating factors ­ lack of mental capacity and role (principal or secondary  actor), marital status, relationship with family, length of employment, prior alcohol or drug abuse, youth of defendant  o Makes sentencing recommendations  Defense attorney o Trial or guilty plea o Judge shopping o Communicate with prosecutor o Highlight circumstances favorable to the defendant  Judge o Limited by the legislature o Informally limited by the courtroom workgroup o Usually follows the recommendations provided if reasonable    Normal Penalties  Two­stage decision­making process o Probation vs. incarceration? o If incarceration, how long?  "normal" penalties are guides and are not applied mechanically  What are some deviation factors? Health, bread winner for family, custody of children    Discrimination in Sentencing  Illegitimate influences on the sentencing process; focus on the defendant's attributes  What are some factors of discrimination? o Economic status o Gender o Race    Discrimination and Economic Status Chapter 15 – Sentencing Decisions Thursday, March 31 st  Poor less likely to be released on bail  Poor less likely to hire private attorney  Often represented by court­appointed attorney  Less likely to get probation and receive longer prison sentences    Discrimination and Gender  Why are women increasingly being sentenced to prison?  Are women sentenced more leniently than men? o Chivalry/paternalistic philosophy ­ stresses that "women are awarded leniency in  sentencing as a result of their inherent biological weaknesses and their need to be  protected and coddled both as offenders and as victims" o Evil woman philosophy ­ emphasizes that women lose the advantages normally  provided by chivalry and paternalism when they are convicted of "manly" crimes o Women commit less serious crimes than men    Discrimination and Race   Law is not biased, but discretion of CJ officials can be   Can prosecutorial discretion be discriminatory?  Young, African­American males  Southern vs. northern states  Offender­victim dyad (Capital punishment) o Black offender, white victim  o White offender, white victim o Black offender, black victim o White offender, black victim    Disparities in Sentencing  Inconsistencies in sentencing resulting from the decision­making process o Geography o Judicial backgrounds and attitudes    Sentencing Guidelines   State and federal guidelines  Directs the judge in specific action to take  Voluntary guidelines  Advisory/suggested  Mandatory guidelines  Prescriptive/required Chapter 14 – Sentencing Options Tuesday, March 29 th Why do we sentence?  Retribution o Offenders deserve punishment o Hold individual responsible for their actions  Lex talionis  "eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth"  "just deserts" o Limitations? Wrongfully convicted sometimes, focuses on crimes of violence  Deterrence o Prevention of future crimes  General vs. specific deterrence  General ­ prevent general public  Specific ­ prevent certain person or group  from committing that  offense  Severity, certainty, celerity of punishment  Severity ­ how severe the punishment is  Certainty ­ how likely the criminal is to get away with crime as  opposed to being caught   Celerity ­ swiftness of punishment  o Utilitarian ­ Bentham o Rests on the assumption of rational behavior  Hedonistic calculus ­ discourage crime by making it painful  o Limitations? Assumes most criminals aren't rationalize, assume people know  what the punishment is  Rehabilitation o Treat rather than punish o Probation o Parole o Pretrial diversion o Evidence­based corrections o Public safety realignment o Sentences should fit the offender rather than the offense   Incapacitation o Assumes crime prevention (future oriented) o Focus on personal characteristics of offender o Limitations? Cost, putting criminals together makes better criminals o Selective incapacitation   Restoration o Seeks to replace retribution  Crime is conflict between individuals  Crime is secondarily a violation of government laws  Principle aim of criminal justice system should repair these injuries  Criminal justice system should facilitate involvement of victims,  offenders, and community Chapter 14 – Sentencing Options Tuesday, March 29 th  Restorative Justice o Three elements  Crime is primarily a conflict between individuals, which results in injuries  The principal aim of the CJ system should be to repair these injuries  The CJ system should facilitate the involvement of victims, offenders, and the community o Should restorative justice replace revenge­based sentencing?   Who Should Decide the Sentence?  All 3 branches of government play a part  Legislative branch o Initially create sentencing options o Criminal codes o Indeterminate vs. determinate sentences  Indeterminate ­ range of years a person may serve  Determinate ­ fixed sentence a person has to serve   Judicial branch o Choosing sentencing options provided by the legislate o No 2 cases are alike (use discretion)  Rehabilitative model  Wide discretion  Due process model  Discretion = inequity  Crime control model  Discretion = leniency  Executive branch o Governors, parole boards, departments of corrections o Carry out sentencing  Parole  Good time  Pardon   What Sentence Should Be Imposed?  Cruel and unusual punishment o 8th amendment  Imprisonment o Prison overcrowding o Conditions of confinement lawsuits o High costs o Realities of imprisoning large numbers of criminal force states to look at  alternative sanctions  Probation o Most commonly  used sanctions in U.S. o Maintaining control while allowing offenders to live in the community Chapter 14 – Sentencing Options Tuesday, March 29 th o Less expensive than incarceration o Statutes prescribe who can and cannot receive probation  Duties of probation officers? Make sure gainfully employed, housing, supervising in the  community   Fines  o One of the oldest and most widely used forms of punishment o Traffic court, minor ordinance violations  Restitution o Offender provides reparation to the victim for harm caused by the offense o Direct vs. symbolic restitution  Direct ­ offender is required to make monetary payments to victim  Symbolic ­ offender makes reparation for harm done in the form of good  works benefitting the entire community rather than particular individual harmed   Intermediate Sanctions  Community service o Symbolic restitution ­ offender has injured community and therefore should  compensate the community for that injury   Intensive supervision probation o Targets offenders who most likely will face imprisonment for their next offense o Home detention o Electronic monitoring o GPS monitoring  Boot camp ­ offenders serve short sentence that includes rigorous, paramilitary regimen  designed to develop discipline and respect for authority  o Shock incarceration ­ offender is sentenced to a brief jail or prison sentence then  released on probation    Death Penalty  Capital punishment ­ automatic review  Lengthy appeals and evolving standards  8th amendment standards o Furman v. GA (1972) moratorium o Gregg v. GA (1976) bifurcated trial process o Coker v. GA (1977) crime limitations ­ rape isn't death eligible; crime has to be  murder o Atkins v. VA (2002) development limitations ­ mentally ill can't receive o Roper v. Simmons (2005) age limitations ­ 18 and under can't receive  Method of execution  Death qualified juries  Narrowing death­eligible cases  Crime limitations  Development limitations 


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