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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Lab 5 Biol1031 feb 16 A. Seed plant growth and development Growth= 1increase in mitotic cell number and expansion Development= changes that occur from early to later stages Apical meristem: origin of plant growth in length Primary root: continuation of the radicle and grows down into the soil or substrate, forming root hairs and lateral roots. Lateral root prominent along primary root axis behind root apex. Elongated hook shaped hypocotyl would be near the surface of soil or slightly above it Cotyledons (seed leaves) will be visible above the ground. Nodes are sites where leaves and axillary buds or branches are attached Internodes are the stem regions between nodes Abscised (fallen off) Above cotyledons are primary leaves which consists of petiole or stalk like part attached to a flattened lamina or blade and referred to as simple leaves, because each has one blade per petiole. All leaves beyond first node are compound leaves because they have more than one blade or leaflet per petiole. In beans or legumes, compound leaves are trifoliate leaves (3 leaflets per leaf) Two leaf arrangements: cotyledon node and first node where simple leaves attach are opposite leaf arrangements whereas all remaining nodes where only one leaf is attached exhibit alternate leaf arrangement. An axillary bud is present above the point on leaf attachment at each node. B. Vascular plant anatomy In herbaceous, non woody, stems of eudicots, vascular tissue is usually arranged in bundles encircling the central pith. The epidermis is outer layer of cells. Collenchyma cells, lying just beneath the epidermis, are characterized by non- uniformly thickened cell walls. Vascular bundles occur in a ring just outside of the outer layers. Each consists of phloem and xylem with prominent vessel elements. Cambium (meristem or growing tissue) exists as a layer of thin cell walls between xylem and phloem. Ground tissue, composed of parenchyma cells, fills the space between the vascular bundles and the epidermis, and the center of the stem. Cortex is region between the epidermis and vascular bundles; center portion is the pith. Cuticle is a thin waxy layer of cutin covering the outside of epidermal cells. Stoma includes two guard cells. Mesophyll is ground tissue (parenchyma cells) between the upper and lower epidermis and consists of the following two layers: palisade mesophyll which is located just beneath the upper epidermis and contains chloroplasts and the other is spongy mesophyll which is located between palisade layer and lower epidermis; these have much intercellular space (has chlorophyll). Vascular bundles (veins) are branched extensively and through mesophyll. Bundle sheath is the layer of parenchyma cells surrounding the xylem and phloem Cortex is a wide layer of parenchymatous storage tissue, lies between the epidermis and vascular cylinder. The endodermis is the innermost layer of cortical cells; cells are somewhat smaller than others. Pericycle is one to several layers or parenchyma cells directly inside endodermis and represent the outermost tissue of the vascular cylinder. C. Vascular plant physiology Physiology is the study of activities and processes. Leaves abscise or drop after abscission layer forms across the base of the petiole. Reduction of auxin, a hormone in a leaf blade leads to abscission. Best example of correlative inhibition is that of apical dominance, in which the terminal bud (apical meristem growing tip of a stem) prevents development of axillary bud. One has been pruned repeatedly by removal of the terminal buds from the branches.