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Chapter 26 Notes

by: Min-Young Kim

Chapter 26 Notes BIOL 3040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 3040 > Chapter 26 Notes
Min-Young Kim
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 26 in our textbook
Biology of Plants
Christina Wells
Class Notes
biology of plants
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Chapter  26  Notes     -­‐ Secondary  growth  causes  an  increase  in  the  girth  of  stems  and  roots   o In  regions  that  are  no  longer  elongating,  secondary  growth  increases   girth.   o Occurs  in  all  gymnosperms  and  I  most  angiosperms  other  than   monocots   o Involves  activity  of  two  lateral  meristems  –  vascular  cambium  and   cork  cambium  (phellogen)   o Herbaceous  plants  undergo  little  or  not  secondary  growth   o Woody  plants  (trees  and  shrubs)  may  continue  to  increase  in   thickness  for  many  years   § Apical  Meristem   • Protoderm   o Epidermis   • Ground  Meristem   o Ground  tissue   § Cortex   • Cork  cambium   o Cork   o Phelloderm   § Pith   § Pith  rays   • Interfascicular  cambium   o Vascular  cambium   § Secondary  phloem   • Procambium   o Primary  phloem   o Undifferentiated  procambium   § Fascicular  cambium   • Vascular  cambium   o Secondary  xylem   o Primary  xylem   -­‐ Plants  are  often  classified  according  to  their  seasonal  growth  cycles   o Annuals:  plants  that  undergo  entire  cycle  from  seed  to  vegetative   plant  to  flowering  plant  to  seed  in  single  growing  season   o Biennials:  two  seasons  required  for  period  from  seed  germination  to   seed  formation   o Perennials:  plants  in  which  vegetative  structures  live  year  after  year   § Some  perennials  are  herbaceous,  others  are  woody   -­‐ The  vascular  cambium  contains  two  types  of  initials:  fusiform  initials  and  ray   initials   o Periclinal  divisions  (parallel  to  surface)  allow  fusiform  initials  to  give   rise  to  components  of  the  axial  system   o Ray  initials  produce  ray  cells,  which  form  vascular  rays,  or  radial   system   o Increase  in  circumference  of  cambium  is  accomplished  by  anticlinal   (perpendicular  to  surface)  divisions  of  initials   -­‐ Cork  cambium  produces  a  protective  covering  on  the  secondary  plant  body   o First  cork  cambium  in  most  stems  originates  in  a  layer  of  cells   immediately  below  the  epidermis   o Cork  cambium  produces  cork  toward  outside  and  phelloderm  toward   inside   o Periderm:  cork,  cork  cambium,  phelloderm   o Although  most  of  periderm  consists  of  compactly  arranged  cells,   isolated  areas  called  lenticels  have  numerous  intercellular  spaces  and   plan  an  important  role  in  the  exchange  of  gases  through  the  periderm   -­‐ Bark  consists  of  all  tissues  outside  the  vascular  cambium   o Most  of  phloem  of  bark  is  non-­‐conducting  in  old  roots  and  stems   o Sieve  elements  are  short-­‐lived,  and  in  many  species  only  the  present   year’s  growth  increment  contains  functional  sieve  elements   o After  the  first  periderm,  subsequently  formed  periderms  originate   deeper  and  deeper  in  the  bark  from  parenchyma  cells  of  non-­‐ conducting  phloem   -­‐ Wood  is  secondary  xylem   o Woods  are  classified  as  either  softwoods  or  hardwoods   o All  softwoods  are  conifers   o All  hardwoods  are  angiosperms  (woody  magnoliids  and  woody   eudicots)   o Conifer  woods,  which  are  structurally  simpler  than  angiosperm   woods,  consist  of  tracheids  and  parenchyma  cells   § Some  contain  resin  ducts   o Angiosperm  woods  may  contain  a  combination  of  all  the  following  cell   types:   § Vessel  elements   § Tracheids   § Several  types  of  fibers   § Parenchyma  cells   -­‐ Growth  rings  result  from  the  periodic  activity  of  the  vascular  cambium   o Growth  layers  that  correspond  to  yearly  increments  of  growth  are   called  annual  rings   o Difference  in  density  between  the  late  wood  of  one  growth  increment   and  the  early  wood  of  the  following  increment  makes  it  possible  to   distinguish  the  growth  layers   o Density  and  specific  gravity  are  good  indicators  of  the  strength  of   wood   o In  many  plants,  non-­‐conducting  heartwood  is  visibly  distinct  from   actively  conducting  sapwood   -­‐ Reaction  wood  develops  in  response  to  the  force  of  gravity  in  a  leaning   branch  or  stem   o Commonly,  reaction  wood  develops  on  the  underside  of  leaning   trunks  and  limbs  of  conifers  and  on  the  upper  side  of  similar  parts  in   angiosperms   o Its  formation  causes  straightening  of  the  trunk  or  limb   o Reaction  wood  is  called  compression  wood  in  conifers  and  tension   wood  in  angiosperms  


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