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EVE12 Week 1 Notes

by: Elizabeth P.

EVE12 Week 1 Notes EVE12

Elizabeth P.
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lecture notes from week 1
Life in the Sea
Class Notes
evolution, marine biology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth P. on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVE12 at University of California - Davis taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Life in the Sea in Biology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Life in the Sea Week 1 Notes I. Lecture 1 a. Intro i. 50% of all life on Earth lives in the sea and there are 250,000 known species of marine animals ii. primary producers- smallest, nano and picoplankton iii. carnivores-largest, southern fur feal, sperm whale iv. 60% of all marine habitats that are providing for human livelihoods are declinging v. new life is still being discoered b. xenoturbella (puple socks flatworm) i. 4 new species discovered in 2016 at a vent in the Gulf of CA ii. had mollusk DNA in them because they eat mollusks iii. have bilateral symmetry, no anus, kidney, nervous or circulatory system c. hydrothermal vents i. undersea volcanoes where molten rocks are released from the Earth’s mantle ii. are extreme environments for life, 516-716 degrees F iii. life is abundant due to chemosynthesis: supports vent food webs, bacteria use H2S to make organic matter d. biodiversity i. species richness: number of species in a community ii. dominance: one species has very high abundance, a species with very low abundance could go extinct and therefore biodiversity would go down) iii. evenness: all species have relatively the same abundance e. vent tube worms/lipstick worms (Riftia) i. have symbiotic sulfur bacteria, are red due to hemoglobin that binds to the sulfur for bacteria to use ii. grow fast and tall iii. no mouth or digestive tract iv. humans intrinsically value biodiversity II. Prep for Next Class III. Chemosynthesis: Chemosynthesis is referred to, in biochemistry, as the conversion of carbon molecules or nutrients into organic matter using oxidation of inorganic compounds of methane as a source of energy in replacement of sunlight. In relation to eve12, it refers to the process by which microbes in the ocean or on the sea floor create energy by mediating these chemical reactions. The animals that live around hydrothermal vents are able to act as producers for the ocean in the same way plants use sunlight to perform photosynthesis and act as producers on land. IV. Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is typically referred to as the process by which plants convert energy in the form of sunlight into chemical energy that can be used to fuel their processes. V. Photic Zone: Also called the euphotic or sunlight zone, this area is the depth of water in lake or ocean that is exposed to high levels of sunlight. The intensity of light causes the rate of carbon dioxide intake/oxygen production to be equal to the reverse rates (carbon dioxide production/oxygen consumption). This equilibrium results in a net value of CO2 as zero. The photic zone is also where almost all of the photosynthesis taking place within the ocean, occurs and bout 90% of marine life lives in this area. VI. Phytoplankton: Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (produce food themselves) components of the plankton community. They are a key part of oceanic ecosystems and require sunlight to live and grow. They typically float in the upper part of the ocean and they convert inorganic nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and sulfur into proteins, fats and carbs. VII. Thermohaline Circulation: This is a component of global water circulation that is driven by density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. a. Lecture 2: Life in the Sea 3/31/2016 A. The Ocean Environment a. 71% of Earth is covered by oceans b. deepest part of the ocean is 11,033m (seven miles) in Mariana Trench, close to Phillipenes, humans have only been down in submarines twice B. Sea Water’s Special Chemical Composition a. Salinity: the total amount of dissolved salts, 96.5% water, 3.5% dissolved salts b. Chlorine, sodium, sulfate, calcium, potassium c. Organisms are mostly seawater (80%) d. Constant composition of salts: ratios of major ions are constant in the ocean (SO4/Cl=0.1396), lakes on land in contrast have very different compositions, ratios in ocean create a very stable environment for marine organisms e. Water is a good solvent, salts make seawater dense- strong fluid forces f. Lower freezing point than freshwater, allows more organisms to live g. Well buffered-stable pH, buffering capacity allows ocean to absorb carbon dioxide, oceans are becoming more acidic quickly C. Light Supports Most Sea Life a. Energy for life comes from the sun as electromagnetic radiation b. Most of the energy is infrared radiation or heat, 67% c. Visible light is absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigments during photosynthesis d. Most of the sea is dark: blue light has the most energy of visible wavelengths so it penetrates the deepest into the sea (why the ocean is blue) all visible light is absorbed by 60m, 200ft (photic zone) e. For scuba divers, everything looks gray at deeper levels because all other colors have been absorbed D. The Sea Is Cold a. Thermocline: sharp change in temperature with ocean depth, most of the ocean is 4 degrees C, average 17 degrees at the surface b. Surface waters can reach 40 degrees, at intertidal zone, (heat stress), happens when tide goes out and sun hits directly c. Seawater is very dense d. Marine life is buoyant in dense seawater e. Many marine organisms collapse under the force of gravity when on land f. Invertebrates (animals without backbones) are very diverse and common, our skeletal systems are adaptations to withstand the force of gravity, marine animals have not had to evolve this way g. Viscosity: the tendency for a fluid to be sticky and to resist flow h. Seawater 55x more viscous and denser than air, results in strong forces (currents are 29x stronger than the force of wind) i. Drag: the force of a flowing fluid on an organism i. Strong attachments, kelp forests have “holdfasts” at their base ii. Elasticity, stretch and bend iii. Streamlining E. Importance of Fluid Flow (Hydrodynamics) a. Transport of reproductive particles, food, essential molecules for life, many organisms are stationary in once place and can’t move b. Removal of waste products c. Chemical signaling to help organisms find mates, prey etc. d. Fluid stress on attached organisms e. Boundary layers are regions of very slow flow close to a surface (floor, rock wall) f. Boundary layers provide protection from fluid energy F. Large Scale Fluid Flow a. Influences the distribution of marine organisms i. Tides ii. Currents iii. Tides expose the shoreline at least once a day iv. Intertidal zone: shallowest part of ocean, heat, desiccation, breaking waves G. Ocean Circulation Shallow and Deep Currents a. Ocean waters circulate the globe in major currents b. Major ocean currents are driven by heating and cooling of the earth, the colder and saltier the water the more dense and likely to sink below the surface c. Local currents are the result of winds blowing on the surface of the water and the rotation of the earth, in addition to density differences d. Major currents influence the distribution and spread of organisms throughout the oceans, have distinct salinities and temperatures which influence sea life H. Japanese 2011 Tsunami Debris a. Debris become home to marine life, debri moved with the north equatorial current b. Means for invasive species that could pose threats to local marine wildlife, radioactivity could end up on our coast or in the food supply I. Fukashima a. Very little evidence that radioactivity reached our shoreline b. Kelp Watch 2015, to see whether there’s any detection of radioactivity in the kelp J. Thermohaline Circulation (shallow to very deep current) a. The conveyor belt global circulation of ocean water between the surface and deep water layers, transfers heat, if it slows down at all we will see an abrupt climate change b. Temperature and salinity determine the viscosity of seawater c. Is the result of changes in the density of seawater d. Density changes are due to freshwater input from precipitation and freshwater run off/evaporation, and heating and cooling of surface waters e. Global warming could disrupt the circulation leading to an abrupt climate change f. ARGO Floats send data via satellite to scientists, moves down, along and back up a layer of water g. Plankton sensors, microscopic and biodegradable K. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is a Pacific phenomenon a. A normal ocean climate cycle b. Higher than average sea surface temperature c. Often followed by colder than average cycle (la nina) d. 7 years e. 9 degree difference in either case f. is caused by slowing of trade winds L. Sea Life Responses to Ocean Variation a. Tropical species show up in CA during ENSO b. Coral bleaching in warmer waters, coral release their symbiotic brown algae (zooxanthellae) when stressed, there’s an alert system set up that has predicted high alerts for this summer M. The Blob- not a natural climate cycle a. 5 degrees above average b. North Pacific c. Unusual prolonger warm waters disrupted food webs d. Unprecedented harmful algal bloom e. Pseudo-nitzschia, a toxic phytoplankton species, domoic acid N. Earth is Undergoing a Rate of Unprecedented Change a. Major ocean changes due to increased CO2 i. Warming: ice cap melting, sea level rising b. Increased CO2 concentrations in seawater: acidification, buffering capacity exceed, “other CO2 problem” (difficult for organisms to build calcium carbonate shells and skeletons, in extreme cases their shells/skeletons dissolve) c. 500,000,000 people displaced worldwide d. brackish drinking water for coastal cities e. decrease in shallow marine habitats, beaches and tourists f. arctic polar bear decline, ursus maritimus O. Summary a. The ocean is a cold, dark, high pressure environment b. Seawater is salty, dense, viscous c. Thermohaline circulation is the result of differences in the density of seawater d. Flowing seawater is important for sea life, but it can also exert strong forces e. Ocean circulation patterns influence earth’s climate and the distribution of sea life, (surface currents and thermohaline circulation) f. The ocean environment has natural cycles of variation (ENSO) g. Recent variation in the ocean environment is unprecedented and is causing ocean warming and ocean acidification P. Thought Question a. The intertidal zone may be greatly affected by both ocean warming and ocean acidification, many species have a temperature threshold in which they can survive and the increase in ocean temperatures may cause extinction for many tide pool species b. Similarly many crustaceans that need to build shells may be unable to due so due to the decreasing pH levels and lack of carbonate ions Q. Next Class a. Complex life history: organisms that change morphology, habitat and diet as they move from one stage to the next b. Flowing fluid is important for reproduction because reproductive cells are carried and distributed by currents c. Hermaphrodite: an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes d. Broadcast spawning: one of the most common methods of reproduction in the sea, animals release their eggs and sperm into the water and fertilization occurs externally


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