ENGLISH 2202 BRIT LIT LECTURE NOTES WEEK 12
ENGLISH 2202 BRIT LIT LECTURE NOTES WEEK 12 2202
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda White on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2202 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Jill Galvan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see British Literature 1800-Present in Foreign Language at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
SP 16: ENGLISH 2202 LECTURE NOTES TH ST WEEK 12: MARCH 29 & MARCH 31 TUESDAY MARCH 29 TH Important Vocabulary Words: 1. Tiresias T.S. ELLIOT: THE WASTE LAND (PG. 1317) *Published in 1922: important work of the modernist period -Poem is difficult, but not for no reason---a rationale for the difficulty: it is what modernism is supposed to represent: a new kind of art -a difficult style is necessary to deal with difficult conditions of modern life and how we view it -Avant garde, rejection of realism and unified representation of the world *experiment with form, style to reflect complexity of modern life and disorientation/uncertainty/lack of agreement -reality is no longer objective but subjective (experimental) *The Waste Land: -so many pieces, parts combined together -multiple threads that don’t always connect -little explanation -6 languages represented: key element of poem is fragmentation -fragmentation of social life, stranger encounters, urbanization, atomization, incohesion -social, psychological and daily life fragmentation -modern life in 20 cent: industrialized society about fragmented pattern of life, repetition, routine that is broken into little pieces (combine fragmentation and routine) -highly ordered, commercialized (ex. Rise of assembly line work) -fragmented, broken tasks constantly repeated -live efficiently and routinely by multiple, repeated tasks -modern life busy: try to get many things done in little time -technological stimuli, distracts attention -psychological fragmentation: doing something on auto-pilot, unconscious at work while you do something else *Fragmentation produces a “cacophony”-have various noises come together in jumbled way, not harmonious *poem is supposed to do this PART 1 Pg. 1318: “April…. tubers” -April is a month of growth, lilacs bloom, beginning of spring -distorted allusion to Chaucer (Canterbury Tales): Pilgrims travel to Canterbury, tell tales -Chaucer: talks of the advent of spring, relieves earth of dryness/winter *borrows a lot from other texts and periods (explained in footnotes) -hear many other voices in poem (Shakespeare, Chaucer, etc.) -multiple perspectives, subjectivity -Alters Chaucer’s words -Elliot: April not happy, beautiful time, but the “cruelest month”, focus on dead land *struggle between death and life-reference to deaths in WW1? -WW1: a modern war, new technology -Elliot: non-realistic representation of the war, a surreal feeling, dreamlike, illogical -War is unpresentable in “real” ways because no stable truths in the world (like Yeats’ ideas) *Elliot’s theme of a waste land: things won’t grow, infertile, desolate -line 19: what can even grow? -no water, broken images (the fragments of the poem) *Contrasted with Chaucer: pilgrimage to a religious site to restore faith, while Elliot uses a loss of faith (ex. Line 25) -allusion to the Bible: see fear and desolation only, no growth and renewal like Chaucer *draught, waste land, arid=lack of certainty and stability (moral and spiritual) because of war *Water=restores a draught (water represented multiple times in poem line 47-drowned sailor, part 3-Thames River, etc.) *is there hope to relieve the draught (spiritual rebirth)? How do we achieve it? *line 43: Madame Sosostris -famous clairvoyant, wise woman -like a fortune teller, sees future, tarot card reader -Theosophy (Yeats)-Madame Blavatsky (Madame S. is Elliot’s parody of Madame B.) -desperate search for mystical wisdom (not glorified searches for meaning) -cheap attempt to recover certainty *Opening lines Part 1: -emphasis of death, but depicts plants growing from dead earth -April is cruel because of the growth…why? -winter keeps us warm? ---complex psyche -Elliot uses the seasons symbolically to represent a mental condition (paradoxes) -snow: repressive, made us forget what was “underneath” (pain, death, tragedy) -spring: cruel because it melts snow and uncovers the pain and mixes it with desire *last part of Part 1 -Line 60: “unreal city”-London, busy metropolis -reference to Dante’s Inferno -people going across London Bridge under a huge brown fog -modern experience of urban crowd juxtaposed with death -dead: automatic, routine of work, don’t feel alive? -urban crowd: atomized, people don’t engage with each other, no sense of community -because of this, city seems “unreal” or not really there *line 69: speaker part of the crowd - “corpse in garden”-surrealism -battle of Mylae (reference to WW1?) -hypocrite reader: speaker here, calls out to Stetson and tries to have a conversation but Stetson doesn’t pay attention----Stetson has become the reader/us -reader is hypocritical: live own lives as if we are individual—call out for reader to see common relationship *feel alienated PART 3: FIRE SERMON *line 215: story of woman (typist) comes home from work, end of the day, dusk -Human is like a machine, losing energy, what are they waiting for? Always on the move *point of view of TIRESIAS: (footnote pg. 1322) -blind prophet/seer of future in Greek mythology -In Homer’s Odyssey -Myth: spent time as both a man and a woman (throbbing between 2 lives) -he’s a hovering presence that watches the woman who is coming home from work -clearing table for “tea time”, clothes drying, sofa piled with clothes/undergarments -Image of the modern single woman: typist job, lives alone, house messy, dishes, clothes -contrasts this image with old Victorian image of femininity and private sphere, good, clean home, moral -in modern period we have come a long way from “angel in the house” -not neat, ordered, messy, lack of modesty (underwear all over couch) -has a young man come over and has sex with him -Tiresias also awaits guest -man arrives: a clerk, office worker, modern -lower class, has a silk hat to look flashy??? Or is hat a simile??? -time is now right for sex -tries to start making a move on her, woman doesn’t say no but doesn’t really want to THURSDAY MARCH 31ST IMPORTANT VOCABULARY WORDS: 1. STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS STYLE ELLIOT: THE WASTE LAND (CONT) -for final exam: will not be responsible for identifying any quotes from “The Waste Land” -other exam passages will be from what we discuss in lecture or recitation *Main difference from Owen’s modern condition of war: Owen=realistic, graphic. Elliot=implies that the “modern” is “unrepresentable”, why poem is incoherent and surreal *modernity needs new methods to convey reality *representation of anonymous, urban city-routine, mechanical, no shared humanity *reader: hypocrite lecteur (won’t admit we are all similar) *work for complexity, efficiency, machine like production *poem asks: if we are leading such mechanical lives, what has become of our spirit? *contrast with Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales: religious pilgrimage to restore faith *Waste Land: deliberately distorts Chaucer reference, dry waste land depleted of spiritual plentitude and moral certainty *But, he is implying the idea of a sort of pilgrimage and spiritual restoration, but its different…is there some sort of ray of hope of spiritual reinvigoration? *Image of April: vegetation tries to come out of the waste land… hopeful image *Image of typist: witnessed by Treatises (a spectator/seer/prophet, not a character) -Carbuncular arrives, his assurance is like a silk hat sitting on a millionaire -lower class, Bob Cratchet figure, seems sort of creepy, pimply, flawed, but has an air of confidence -he’s “no prize to be won” -has a date with typist, going to try to make a move on her, doesn’t push him away, but also not really desiring him -man brushes it off and goes for it anyway, becomes aggressive (not a rape), she is just indifferent/bored, couldn’t care less -Tiresias: he’s seen this in advance this scene, sees the patronizing last kiss and the man just leaving----depressing scene (just has sex then leaves, but she doesn’t really even care!) *Modern femininity: unchaste, unsexually modest, no virtue to “save” for marriage -change from angel in the house of Victorian Era -No moral center of society if woman is no longer moral *Sex scene: shows social fragmentation and alienation of individuals -sex is not intimate, not for family, but something people do who don’t really care about each other. Not really into it *Woman: her reaction underlines fragmented psyche, she just goes through motions -indifferent, unconsciously just has sex and doesn’t really even care about it -guy leaves, she just puts on music, again acts on auto pilot *poem: a constant struggle between life and death, go through life unconsciously *Line 312/Part 4. Death by water: - addresses reader again, consider the description of Phlebas he just described -Phlebas also mentioned earlier: sees a tarot cart of the drowned sailor -Phlebas: image of a dead sailor on the ocean floor -forgotten the profit and the loss: -now that he is dead, he is unaware of mortal concerns and capitalism -dies by drowning: water a cure for draught -water and drowning here have positive connotations -drowning is good because now he forgets about capitalist concerns -death is a good thing: suggests dead to mortal life, but now reborn spiritually? -just a skeleton, outside of time, experiencing after death *Part 5: -What the thunder said, reassert need for rain to cure draught -storm: ironically welcome because it cures draught -line 331: rock and no water, all just a draught -so little water you can’t even sweat or spit, no hydration at all -dry sterile thunder without rain -the thunder: associated with water, but barely there *longing for water throughout the poem (longing for spiritual regeneration) -repetitiveness of water and rocks: shows delirium of being in a desert -line 360: the third? -refers to exploration of Shackleton -allusion to bible?? rd -two people walk, 3 person is Crdist?? (who’s that with you?) -can’t really tell if there is a 3 person or not *End -half promise of lightening and thunder -line 394: finally get rain -thunder speaks: onomatopoeia (Da Da Da) -Da: Datta-give -Da: Dayadhuam-sympathize -Da: Damyata-control -Elliot gives image of water, but shifted away from glimpse of Christ to Hinduism -Line 396: sacred river in India (Hinduism) -Da’s: reference to Upanishad’s-Hindu spiritual treatises -thunder “quotes” from Hindu truths *meanings: give, sympathize, control-from Hindu religion *shift of Christianity to Hinduism -speaker desperately acting through moral and social disorder -search for anything to give a spiritual answer (like thunder) -Line 431: FRAGMENTS SHORED AGAINS MY RUINS *talks of fragments of faith and fragments of the poem itself *social ruin and fall into disorder (modern condition) *Fragments pulled together to try to find a new version of order *shanti (last line)-peace -opposite of war -peace: inner calmness -slight shift in tone: up until now been confusion, disillusion, but last line shows small tone of hope, but its qualified (still reflects uncertainty of modernism) -beyond our rational attempt to understand, can’t be represented simply VIRGINIA WOOLF *sees modernism as an opportunity to push for something new *not really “hopeful”, but sees a new opportunity for women to speak *Woolf: associated with early feminism -battles inherited ideas of “femininity” -reject values of Victorian period, including what it means to be a woman (gender) (Online: “professions for women”—on Carmen) *angel in the house is “killed”-sympathy, grace, purity, charm, “womanly” traits---gone! *woman writer’s responsibility is to “kill” the angel in the house -don’t be hampered by old ideas of what it means to be a woman -be assertive and don’t shy away *angel is like a hovering spirit, but visible—calls it a Phantom (not real even though it seems to be there) ---just a cultural idea, not a reality! -harder to kill a cultural idea vs. a real thing -very pervasive, no specific target, truth just by tradition *Woolf is funny, ironic and light hearted