Week 10 Notes
Week 10 Notes PSYX 100S-03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S-03 at University of Montana taught by Kali Diane Strickland (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Liberal Arts at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 11/18/15
Week 10 Chapter 11- Development Development- sequence of age related changes • Longitudinal study- follows participants over time • Cross-sectional study- looks at differences amongst age cohorts that are bonded or have common life experiences • Prenatal development o 1. Conception- mstent of zygote production o 2. Germinal- 1 2 weeks § rapid cell division § sticks to uterine wall in week one § placenta forms o 3. Embryonic- 2 weeks through 2 months § heart, brain, spine develop § inch long § visible appendages and eyes § most common stage for a miscarriage to occur o 4. Fetal- 2 months through birth § rapid growth § movement § called a fetus § hearing develops § brain develops in last three months § Threshold of viability in weeks 23-26 o Environment § Teratogens-external agent that can harm prenatal development • Maternal drug use i.e. alcohol or tobacco • Illness and toxin exposure • Maternal stress- can lead to behavioral problems and affect the mother’s hormone balance • Child Development o Motor Development- progression of muscular coordination needed for physical activity § Cophalocaudal trend- head to feet § Promximadistal trend- center to extremities o Temperament- typical mood, activity level, emotional reactivity, sociability § Attachment theory- there are emotional bonds between infants and care givers • Harlow used terry cloth and wire mesh monkey dolls and baby monkeys preferred the terry cloth dolls • Ainsworth strange situation- reactions of child in different conditions of caregivers and when they leave o Secure- calm with present of caregiver, parents were responsive o Anxious- upset always, parents were selectively engaged o Avoidant- calm always, parents were disengaged o Disorganized- mixed behaviors, parents were neglectful o Parenting Style § Authoritarian- strict rules, rules are no explained • Children are obedient and proficient but less confident socially § Authoritative- set rules that are somewhat flexible, assertive, discipline is explained • Children are happy, successful and capable § Permissive- few rules, try to assume friend role, indulgent • Children are disruptive, less happy and self regulating § Uninvolved- few rules, not communicative and detached • Children are less confident, successful and self regulatory • Cognitive Development- transitions in patterns of thinking o Peoje Theory § Sensorimotor period (0-2 years) • Coordinate sensory input with motor function • Object permanence- learn that objects are still existing even if they are hidden from sight, learn (4-8 months) master (18 months) § Preoperational period (2-7 years) • Symbolic thought, but have shortcomings o Centration- focus on one feature o Conservation- taller is larger, do no take all factors into account o Egocentrism- do not understand another person’s view o Irreversibility- view that things cannot be undone o Animism- view that everything is alive like them § Concrete Operational period (7-11 years) • Mental manipulation of objects • Decrease of limitations in preoperational period § Formal Operational period (11+ years) • Increase in abstract scientific thinking • Continues through life, pattern does not change but degree does o Sociocultural theory (Vygotsky) § Social factors are different in various cultures § Gains are made through interactions § Zone of proximal development- skills are too difficult on their but can be achieved through guidance and help § Scaffolding- amount of guidance and help given, decreases as competence increases • Moral Development o Kohlberg’s Stage Theory of Moral Reasoning § Preconventional level • Punishment and reward orientation • Naïve reward orientation § Conventional level • Good girl/boy orientation • Authority orientation § Post Conventional • Social contract orientation • Individual principles and conscious orientation • Identity Development o Erickson Stages of Psychosocial Development § Personality is continually developing § Successful navigation through social crises establishes trust, identity and beneficence • 1. Trust v Mistrust (1 year) o Basic needs are met- trusting towards environment • 2. Autonomy v Doubt (2-3 years) o If responsibility is taken well- independence is developed • 3. Initiative v Guilt (3-6 years) o Support of child’s independence- maintained initiative and respect by child o Over controlling parents- guilt • 4. Industry v Inferiority (6-12 years) o Effective social functioning- feel competent and capable • 5. Identity v Confusion (teen) o Struggle with the question “Who am I?” • 6. Intimacy v Isolation (early adulthood) o If intimate relationships develop- empathy and openness develops • 7. Generative v self absorption (middle adulthood) o Concern for future generation if kids are had • 8. Integrity v Despair (late adulthood) o Develop the meaning and get satisfaction from life if bitterness and regret and avoided • Adolescent Development o Puberty around 13 § Menarche (female) Spermarche (male) § Secondary sex characteristics develop § Gender based social expectations intensify o Early puberty § More psychological distress for females o Neural development § Prefrontal cortex develops fully by 20s § Neurons myelination increase white matter in brain o Emerging adulthood (18-25 years) § Self reflection § Cultural differences § Milestones of adulthood differ a lot now § Cohabitation before marriage has increase o Aging § Sensory abilities decrease, hormones decline, menopause in women § Intelligence decreases at 60 § Dementia- memory loss, personality change, impaired reasoning
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