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Week 12 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life

by: Caroline Hill

Week 12 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Biology > BIO 106 - M001 > Week 12 Lecture Notes BIO 106 Ocean Life
Caroline Hill
GPA 3.8
Ocean Life
S. Parks

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About this Document

These are detailed notes of the lectures from the twelfth week of this class, which were about marine shallow seas ecosystems and deep sea habitats.
Ocean Life
S. Parks
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 11/18/15
111615 Marine Ecosvstems Shallow Seas Ecosystems and BiodiversitV Putting it all together Oceanography Diversity of Life Food web interactions Conservation Concerns Biodiversity variety of diversity of life at a given site or ecosystem Biodiversity ecosystem health Three Levels of BiodiversitV Genetic diversity Within one species what is the genotype like Scientists are interested because they want to see how the species can adapt to change and survive Species diversity Between species How species vary and their structure Ecosystem diversity Between ecosystems Genetic DiversitV You can have multiple habitats that this species is present in Species DiversitV Ratio of one species population vs total number of all organisms in an ecosystem Gives you an idea of how the species may look size wise in the ocean compared to other species Ecosvstem Diversitv Westem Pacific has high species diversity Diversity of a collection of related species in a particular location at an ecosystem level Species Richness vs Evenness two main measure of biodiversity Richness total number of species in an ecosystem Evenness proportion of species at a given site how they are distributed between the different species that are present Biodiversitv Hotsnots Support nearly 60 of world s plant bird mammal reptile and amphibian species Defined in 1988 by Norman Myers for terrestrial ecosystems Location with very high species diversity at risk from human activities High diversity alone is not important enough to be a hotspot Biodiversitv in the Shallow Seas Habitats on the continental shelf Less than 200 m in depth where light can reach Energy from sunlight Nutrients available from the land Affected by tidal cycles S alt marshes Mangroves Intertidal zones Kelp forests Coral reefs Salt Marsh Oceanoaraphv Coastal areas in mid to high latitudes Tidally inundated with salt water There are relatively few salt marshes in the tropical latitudes Mangroves take their place We have lost more than 40 of the world s salt marshes and we are still losing 1 a year Salt marshes zonation Dominated by herbs and grasses More salt water to less salt water Low marsh has a lot salt meadow has less salt panne has less upland bank barer has any the plants in each zone are driven by how much salt is present Salt marsh biodiversitV grasses are primary producers Low marsh to salt meadow to salt panne As you move farther from the coast there are grassier and plant like structures invertebrate and vertebrate consumers very large range Salt marsh food webs tend to be relatively simplistic algae domination at bottom of food chain fish and crabs bird species some small mammalia species the further you get away from the ocean the more terrestrial the habitat will be Salt marsh conservation Habitat destruction globally water ow modifications Canals for ood control Ditching to control mosquitos pollution from road run off and fertilizers Intertidal Zones OceanographV communities divided into zones according to tidal height distance above low tide Major challenges EXposure to air Temperature Salinity Wave interaction Parts of the coastline With tidal range Intertidal biodiversitV Zonation Supratidal fringe Upper intertidal zone Middle intertidal zone Lower intertidal zone Subtidal zone More air exposure and greater wave action down to less air exposure and lower wave action Intertidal Tide Pools retain water at all tide levels major temperature and salinity changes high biodiversity Intertidal BiodiversitV Primary producers Lichen Green algae Red algae Brown algae Invertebrate consumers Periwinlltle snails B arnacles Mussels Sea Stars Anemones Crabs Consumers Vertebrates Gulls Tide pool sculpin Intertidal Food Web plankton eaters algae eaters snails mostly grazing going on there are some secondary consumers sea stars For the most part people are feeding pretty low on the food chain Very few species that are dependent on a single source of food Intertidal Conservation Harvest of resources collecting mussels Invasive species Green crabs on east coast Ocean acidification pollution including oil spills Kelp Forest Habitats Kelp forests grow along rocky shores in regions where maximum water temperatures are below 20 degrees Celsius Because the Humboldt Current is cold kelp forests extend into subtropical regions along the west coast of South America Kelp forests are found in the cold water around the world They are found in areas of upwelling on the west coasts of the Pacific continents Kelp forests food webs Phytoplankton and algae primary producers A number of species that live at the substrate and feed on microalgae Zooplankton that feed on phytoplankton multiple layers of species Sea otters feeding on crabs and urchins Kelp forests biodiversitV Autotrophic life brown algae Red coralline algae phytoplankton Because there is so much wave action and things moving back and forth they can photosynthesize and be autotrophs Invertebrate consumers Feeding on the holdfasts and detritus Some feed on plankton Vertebrate consumers Fishes Sea otters Sea lions Marine birds Kelp forests conservation Sea urchin barrens Other threats Pollution and runoff Elevated seawater temperatures El nino global warming Coral Reefs Primary calcium carbonate built by reef corals Require a hard bottom and shallow warm 2035 degrees Celsius clear water Home to some of the highest biodiversity hot spots on the planet 32 of 34 animal phyla are found on coral reefs compared to only 9 phyla in tropical rainforests More than 4000 fish species and 800 species of coral Coral Reef Habitats Coral reefs circle planet in a band centered on the equator they are a compliment to the kelp forests Coral reefs are absent from shores silted by runoff from large rivers Found in the tropics coral reefs oceanographv Fringing reef corals growing around young islands from a fringing reef B arrier reef as island subsides corals continue to grow upward and outward toward the sea forming a barrier reef Atoll as island continues to subside coral growth may form and atoll on top of island when it has subsided completely below sea level coral reef biodiversitV producers common photosynthetic organisms live in tissues of coral polyps invertebrate consumers very dominant and covering every part of the surface great barracuda Picasso trigger fish clownfish parrot fish butter y fish puffer fish clown frogfish gray reef shark French angelfish Coral Reef Food Webs consumers Predators fishes squids snails consumers Grazers detritus feeders coral and coral mucus feeders plankton feeders producers Seaweeds coralline algae photosynthetic bacteria coralszooxanthellae Coral Reef Conservation coral reefs are in very bad shape around the world over exploitation coastal development inland pollution marinebased pollution climate change and ocean acidification primary threat tourism poison fishing sedimentation coral harvesting dynamite fishing pollution Shallow sea biodiversitv Dependence on photosynthetic primary producers know the dominant primary producers in each habitat high levels of species richness and evenness most undisturbed habitats shared conservation concerns from habitat destruction pollution and global climate change 111815 Deep Sea Habitats Polar Habitats Oceanoaraphv Artic circle 66 degrees 33 North Antarctic circle 66 degrees 33 South There is much more land in the Antarctic than in the Arctic Articwater centric Antarctic land centric Both are equally inaccessible to human explorations The Arctic is going to be ice free in the summers so there is a race for oil and gas claims No one owns Antarctica it is shared Polar water depths In the center of the north pole there are large and deep basins In Antarctica there is even deeper water just off shore Polar habitats Because of the tilt of the axis of the earth both poles experience complete darkness 24 hours a day Their seasonal changes are very different than the ecosystems we have looked out Primary productivity is tied to undersurface ice and coated with green algae There is a very rich fauna on the seabed a lot of diversity of organisms Polar habitats biodiversitV Primary producers ice algae phytoplankton glued to the undersurface of ice Seasonally there are phytoplankton blooms when spring comes and the water gets warmer and the ice retreats Global warming has a major impact in phytoplankton blooms happening at the right time Invertebrate consumers anthropods amphipods shrimp shape isopods dorsoventrally attened crabs copepods krill cnidarians ctenophores and pteropods jellyfish sea butter y comb jellies arrow worms Arctic consumers vertebrates polar bears orca beluga narwhal bearded seal walrus sculpin ell pout Antarctic consumers orca crabeater seal humpback whales leopard seal penguin fish Polar habitats food web Similar to shallow seas food webs Antarctic and arctic are not that different food chains it is just some variation in the animals primary productivity limited to phytoplankton green algae zooplankton baleen whales fish polar bears orca Polar habitats conservation Arctic Climate change Oilgas development Overfishing Antarctic Climate change Overfishing and whaling trash The deep we are going to be talking about the bathypelagic zone the abyssopelagic zone and the hadalpelagic zone Biodiversitv hotspots in the deep sea hydrothermal vents cold seeps coldwater reefs biodiversity of 10000100000x greater than the abyssal plain Deep sea exploration the last frontier of exploration on earth some of the last pristine wildlife on the planet We know what the surface of the moon is better than we know what the surface of the sea oor is James Gardner 2001 research professor at UNH How much of the ocean have we exnlored Less than 5 of the sea oor has been explored An even smaller percentage of the deep sea less than 4000 m has been explored by manned or unmanned devices First deep sea life stalked Crinoid by Norwegians in 1864 at 3100 m Don t we know what s on the sea oor We know a lot of things from exploration maps and gravity maps from space but it is on a very coarse scale Survev methods for the deep sea all of these are still used landline surveys used in the 1800s a very laborious and tedious process single beam echo sounder surveys used in the mid 1900s using sound to measure multibeam full bottom coverage Map of multibeam surveys there are vast areas of the ocean that no one has multibeamed more has been multibeamed since the lost ight from Malaysia Funding for scientific research total proposed 2011 outlays 384 trillion Science spending represents only a tiny fraction of the US budget Funding for exploration of ocean vs space NASA s space exploration budget dominates NOAA s ocean exploration budget roughly 150 to one 38 billion NASA exploration budget 237 million NOAA office of exploration and research Alvin Iconic manned submersible Before the Deep Sea Challenger only US deep sea manned exploration vehicle greater than 4000 m depths First built in 1964 by Woods Hole Has made over 4600 dives NeW Alvin ready in May 2013 to increase depths of 6500 m Manned vs Unmanned exploration Manned vehicles are limited for time of deployment because there are people in them Unmanned vehicles have done the majority of deep sea exploration Termed UUV Unmanned underwater vehicles or ROV remote operated vehicles UUVs are limited by their fiber optic cables A lot of species have been described by this deep sea exploration Hvdrothermal vents oceanoaraphv First discovered in 1977 on the East Pacific Rise Currently 520 known sites Sea oor vents of geothermal heated water Source of chemical compounds sulfides for chemosynthesis The Atlantic and Pacific hydrothermal vents are very different Black vs White Smokers Black Smokers generate black smoke Appear black due to emission of sulfidic materials Higher temperatures 350400 degrees Celsius White Smokers generate white smoke Lighter in color due to emission of calcium and silicon materials Lower temperatures 250300 degrees Celsius Hvdrothermal vents BiodiversitV Primary producers Vent bacteria form mats that coat the chimney Symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria Invertebrate consumers Vent zooplankton vent clam vent tubeworm vent shrimp Pompeii worm blind crabs vent octopus Pompeii worm Highest thermal tolerance of any organism Vertebrate consumers Zoarcid fish Vent ratfish Hvdrothermal vents food web Fairly simple Primary producers vent bacteria symbiotic bacteria Top camivores Ratfish blind crabs vent octopus Cold Seeps Discovered in 1983 in the Gulf of Mexico Area where hydrogen sulfide methane and other chemicals seep from the sea oor Hydrothermal vents that are not hot Called cold relative to hydrothermal vents but usually the same temperature as surrounding water Cold Seep Communities They are often colonized in a concentric fashion They don t have a set location like hydrothermal vents do Gas hydrates solid methane gas A lot of energy stored in them Total energy stored in gas hydrates are estimated to be greater than those of all other known fossil fuels combines They are associated with cold seeps Hvdrothermal vents and cold seeps conservation Although they are mostly untouched because they are so deep and difficult to access they still are threatened by humans maj or threats mining scientific exploration Cold water coral reefs oceanoaraphv Warm coral reefs Shallow Warm High diversity Cold coral reefs Deep Cold High diversity Cold water coral reefs Water temperatures of 412 degrees Celsius Up to 6000 m in depth they can even be found in tropics Many species more than 3000 currently described Known since 1800s but only fully explored in the past 20 years No photosynthesis because there is no light Slow growth and VERY long lives also made from calcium carbonate like warm coral reefs Cold water reefs Can be as beautiful as shallow water reefs Can be a lot of vibrant colors and diversity Tend to have reef building corals associated With these communities Cold water coral reef biodiversitV Primary producers come from surface because there is no photosynthesis More than 2000 invertebrate species More than 500 species of fish Dominant coral Lophelia Pertusa Coral reef conservation Warm water reefs overfishing habitat destruction climate change Cold water reefs overfishing habitat destruction climate change ocean acidification Abyssal Plains oceanography typically 40006000 m tend to be oceanic trenches Abyssal plains make up 79 of the ocean 60 of the planet big habitat that we really don t know much about More area than all terrestrial habitats Characterized by at open expanses with thick layers of sediment Abyssal plain primary production Very similar to cold water coral habitats Coming from the surface of the ocean marine snow Abyssal plains sources of energy There are sometimes bonanzas of food that fall into the deep sea and organisms take advantage of them ex when a whale dies there are species specialized to find these organisms Rapid decay ex wood Abyssal plains biodiversity Invertebrate consumers We do not know much about them Lots of squid species Consumers vertebrates Fishes with bioluminescence Abyssal plains conservation Past Disposal Present exploitation Mineral extracting Fishing Climate changeocean acidification


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