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PSYC chapter 11

by: Briana Marcy

PSYC chapter 11 PSYC 100-001

Briana Marcy
GPA 3.8

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Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 11/18/15
PSYC CH. 11 What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement Basic Motivational Concepts  Motivation is defined as need or desire that energizes and directs behavior  4 perspectives for understanding motivated behaviors: o Instinct theory (evolutionary perspective): genetically predisposed behaviors o Drive-reduction theory: Responses to inner pushes o Arousal theory: Right levels of stimulation o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Priority of some needs over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology  Darwin o Classification of many behaviors as instincts; named but did not explain behaviors  Instinct o Fixed, unlearned pattern throughout species o Genes predispose some species-typical behavior *the more complex the nervous system, the more adaptable the organism Drives and Incentives  Drive-reduction theory suggests physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need  Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry  Incentive involves a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Motivational Concepts -Arousal Theory  Humans are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal levels  High arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels  Low arousal levels motivate activities that increase arousal- often through curiosity Maslow -Viewed human motives as pyramid -At the base are basic physiological needs, at the peak are the highest human needs The Physiology of Hunger  Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight  Stomach contractions  Blood sugar glucose regulation  Appetite hormones  Set point  Basal metabolic rate Hunger: The Physiology of Hunger -The hypothalamus performs various body maintenance functions, including control of hunger  Glucose o Is a form that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o Triggers feeling of hunger when low  Hypothalamus and other brain structures o Arcuate nucleus: Pumps appetite-suppressing hormones o Ghrelin: Involves hunger-arousing hormones secreted by empty stomach Eating as Motivated Behavior  Glucose deprivation o Brain’s requirement for food in form of glucose is no less urgent than requirement for oxygen o Only a few minutes of glucose deprivation leads to loss of consciousness  Energy storage o Complex regulatory mechanisms o Primary motivation for eating is to keep energy reserves at level to avoid shortfalls Energy Balance  Prandial state (Latin=breakfast) o Energy stores replenished during and right after a meal o Blood is filled with nutrients  Energy is stored in two forms o Glycogen  Stores have finite capacity mainly in liver and skeletal muscle o Triglycerides  Stores found in adipose (fat) tissue, unlimited capacity The Appetite Hormones  Insulin: hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose  Leptin: protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger  Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus  PYY: Digestive tract hormone; sends the “not hungry” signals to the brain Lipostatic Hypothesis British scientist Gordon Kennedy (1953) proposed lipostatic hypothesis -The brain monitors amount of body fat and acts to “defend” this energy store against depletion Leptin Coupling of fat to feeding behavior suggests communication from adipose tissue to the brain  In 1994, Jeffrey Friedman isolated the protein leptin (Greek for slender)  Hormone released by adipocytes- fat cells- that regulate body mass by acting directly on neurons of the hypothalamus  Short-term regulation of feeding behavior o How long since last meal o How much did we eat then o Continuing to eat after a meal starts  Depends on what type of food  Drive to eat o Varies slowly with rise and fall of leptin o Inhibited by satiety signals that occur when we eat and begin digestive process When eating breakfast, your reactions during this process can be divided into three stages: cephalic, gastric, and substrate phases Cephalic: sight and smell of food trigger many physiological processes  Parasympathetic and enteric divisions of the ANS are activated  Saliva is secreted into mouth  Digestive juices are secreted into stomach Gastric: responses grow much more intense when you start chewing, swallowing, and filling your stomach with food Substrate: As the stomach fills with food and the partially digested food moves to the intestines, nutrients begin to be absorbed into the bloodstream Meal ends with the concerted actions of 3 safety signals:  Gastric distention  Release of gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin  Release of the pancreatic hormone insulin The Psychology of Hunger: Taste Preferences  Body chemistry and environmental factors influence taste preferences  Biology o Universal preferences for sweet and salty tastes o Calming effect of serotonin boost from carbohydrates Culture- examples  Bedouins: Camel eye is a delicacy  Westerners: “rotted bodily fluid of ungulate”- cheese Adaptive  Spicier food preferences in hotter climates o Pregnancy-related nausea and food aversion peak at 10 weeks in utero An acquired taste -People everywhere learn to enjoy fatty, bitter, or spicy foods common to their cultures. Example: Alaska natives enjoy whale blubber, while most North Am. countries do not The Psychology of Hunger: Situational Influences on Eating  Tempting situations o Friends and food: presence of others amplify natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation) o Serving size is significant: quantity of consumed food is influenced by size or serving, dinnerware, and cultural norms o Food variety stimulate: food variety promotes eating Obesity and Weight Control  Data from 188 countries reveal: o Proportion of overweight adults increased from 29-37% among men, and 30-38% among women o NO reduced obesity rate in ANY country in over 33 years o In 2010, no U.S. state had an obesity rate less than 20% o Extreme obesity carries wide range of health risks The Physiology of Obesity  Set point o Point at which your “weight thermostat” is apparently set. If and when your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may kick in to restore the lost weight  Basal metabolic rate o The body’s resting rate of energy output  Genetics influence body weight o People’s weights resemble biological parents o Identical twins have closely similar weight, even when raised apart  Environment also influences obesity o Sleep loss contributes to fall in leptin levels and rise in ghrelin o Social influence seen win correlation among friends’ weights o Changing increased food consumption and lower activity levels are seen worldwide **The U.S. does have highest overall percentage of overweight and obese persons in the world Waist Management  Only start trying to lose weight if you feel motivated and self- disciplined  Exercise and get enough sleep  Minimize exposure to tempting food cues  Limit variety and eat healthy foods  Reduce portion sizes  Don’t starve all day and eat one big meal at night  Beware of binge eating  Before eating with others, decide how much you are going to eat  Remember, most people lapse occasionally so it’s not a reason to quit  Connect to a support group, or tell friends and family of your goals Hormones and Sexual Behavior  Testosterone o Most important male sex hormones o Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the  Estrogens sex hormones o Estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics o In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity  Large hormonal surges or declines tend to occur at two predictable points in life span o Pubertal stage surge triggers development of sex characteristics and sexual interest o Estrogen levels fall in later life causing menopause in women  A third point sometimes occurs o For some, surgery or drugs may cause hormonal shifts Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias Sexual dysfunctions  Impair sexual arousal or functioning  Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal  Includes erectile disorder and premature ejaculation (males)  Includes female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/arousal disorder (females)  Sometimes involve paraphilias (sexual desire in unusual ways; e.g. pedophilia, exhibitionism)  Sexual dysfunction o Problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning  Erectile disorder o Inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis  Premature ejaculation o Sexual climax that occurs before the man or his partner wishes  Female orgasmic disorder o Feeling distressed due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm  Paraphilias o Experiencing sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non-consenting persons  American Psychiatric Association (2013) o Only classifies people as disordered who experience sexual desire in unusual ways if:  Person experiences distress from unusual sexual interest or  It entails harm or risk of harm to others o Necrophilia, exhibitionism, pedophilia Sexually Transmitted Infections  Sexually transmitted infection (STI) o Also called sexually transmitted disease (STD) o Spread primarily from person-to-person sexual contact  AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) o Is life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection o Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). o AIDS depletes immune system and leaves person vulnerable to infection  Rates have increased in recent years, especially for people under 25 o CDC report: 14- to 19-year-old U.S. females found 39.5 percent had STIs o Condom use effectiveness varies by infection (80% effectiveness when used w/ infected partner; less effective w/ skin-to-skin STIs)  Significant link between oral sex and STIs  Women’s AIDs rates increasing fastest The Psychology of Sex  Sophisticated brain allows us to experience sexual arousal both from what is real and from what is imagined o External stimuli  Men more aroused when erotic material aligns w/ personal sexual interest  Content and intensity of sexual experience arouse women  Pornography may decrease sexual satisfaction w/ own partner; may change perceptions about rape and other sexual violence  Imagined stimuli o Sexual desire and arousal can be imagined o 90% of spinal-injured men reported having sexual desire o 95% of people report having sexual fantasies  Males: Tend to be more frequent, more physical and less romantic Teen pregnancy  Influences on higher teen pregnancy rate o Minimal communication about birth control o Guilt related to sexual activity o Alcohol use o Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity What Is Sexual Orientation  Enduring sexual attraction toward o Members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) o The other sex (heterosexual) o Both sexes (bisexual)  In all cultures, heterosexuality has prevailed and bisexuality and homosexuality have endured The Numbers  Survey results vary by survey methods and population; less open response in less tolerant places  Exclusively homosexual: 3 to 4 percent in men and 2 percent in women  Bisexual: 5 percent of men and 13 percent of women in U.S.  APA reports efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harm  Gay-straight brain differences  One hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and gay men than in straight men  Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the smell of sex-related hormones  Genetic influences  Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins  Sexual attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated  Male homosexuality often appears to be transmitted from the mother’s side of the family Sexual Orientation: Same-Sex Attraction in Other Species  Women’s sexual orientation more varying less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changing (erotic plasticity)  Men with high sex drive have increased attraction to women (heterosexual) or men (homosexual)  Sexual orientation is unrelated to pedophilia in most cases Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Influences  Altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals  Men with several older biological brothers are more likely to be gay, possibly due to a maternal immune-system reaction  The consistency of the brain, genetic, and prenatal findings has swung the pendulum toward a biological explanation of sexual orientation Sex and Human Values  Most sex researchers work to keep their work free from value influence  Research does not seek to define the personal meaning of sex Affiliation and Achievement: The Need to Belong  Social bonds and cooperation enhanced early ancestors’ survivability.  Combat was more successful  Reproduction was strengthened  Foes were avoided  Humans are still innately social beings.  Need to belong effects thoughts, emotions, and behaviors  Feelings of love activate brain reward and safety systems  Social isolation increases risk for mental decline and poor health The Need to Belong  Pain of being shut out  Worldwide, many forms of ostracism are used  Brain scans reveal that ostracism causes physical pain  Social isolation and rejection foster depressed moods or emotional numbness and can trigger aggression  Risk for mental decline and ill health may also occur Connecting and Social Networking  Mobile networks and social media  At end of 2013, 6.8 billion mobile cell subscriptions  Texting, social media sites, and other messaging technology replacing e-mailing  Three in four U.S. teens (mostly females) send 60+ texts daily  94 percent of entering U.S. college freshman used social networking sites in 2010 The Net Result: Social Effects of Social Networking  More, or less, socially isolated?  Healthy self-disclosure?  Accurate personality reflections in profiles and posts?  Promotion of narcissism? Suggests for Maintaining Balance  Monitor your time  Monitor your feelings  “Hide” your most distracting online friends  Try turning off or leaving your mobile devices elsewhere  Try a social networking fast or a time-controlled media diet Achievement Motivation  Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard  Achievements are not distributed on a bell curve and involve much more than raw ability  Grit matters. In psychology, it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals


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