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Notes 3/29-31

by: Vanessa Notetaker

Notes 3/29-31 APY204

Vanessa Notetaker

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About this Document

Language and Gender
Linguistic Anthropology
Dr. Everett
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY204 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Linguistic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 03/31/16
3/29/2016 Recap  Pidgins to creoles  Language death: speakers of one language switch to another  Language creation The coming of creoles  Breadfruit: Tahiti o Attempt: to raise it in Caribbean for cheap sours of food for slaves o The Bounty: ship from England, some men became enamored with Tahitian women  Resented captain and not being allowed to fraternize with the women… mutiny  Fletcher led mutiny vs captain (punishable by death in England, had to move since GB had trade relations in Tahiti) … found remote island called Pitcairn island  Speakers of English and Tahitian had to interact in this new island in Pitcairn (late 1700s)  People lived here for decades before anyone came across this island  Linguistically, an English based pidgin came into being… Pitcairn creole (sealed off from outside, we know historical events and base languages)  Scottish features (one Scottish guy on ship) as well as other characteristics… can be traced to specific people  Culture: systematic rape… because it started out with Tahitian women being taken by men (we don’t know how voluntary this was) …. Stories that part of becoming a woman was being raped in the fields… so NZ govt came in to put an end to this… a lot of people defended it INCLUDING women considered it very much part of their culture by this point…  Idea of cultural relativism: we value tremendously other cultures and what they can teach us & we need to approach them in a manner that’s not ethnocentric (“default western industrial” approach in our case)  Sexism and sexual practice: what’s happening in Pitcairn is anomalous but not as anomalous as we think it is… other cultures have violent rites of passage o Example: men in amazon, it’s a rite of passage (Zataremawe)… to become a man you go thru ant glove ceremony (glove filled with bullet ant heads/pinchers)… absence of crying means they are men build up pain tolerance  Rites of passage for women, sometimes for men, involve sexual acts... unfortunately, sometimes violent sexual acts… so what happened in NZ is not so out of the ordinary…  Pitcairn brings out a lot of things to surface... NZ imposed outside cultural values (also a lot of murder going on… men jealous of men due to limited amount of women? Lang varieties: language is an idealization ultimately we all have different languages bc though we speak English, we all have different ways of speaking, no one knows the exact same set of words… associated with vocation, hometown, etc… no two people have exact same vocab… language exists as an abstraction. no central database that say this is what language is... grammar books and dictionaries don’t  Language death centered around violence and death, same as language creation (ex: slave trade, Pitcairn) Language varieties  Three main kinds o Dialects  Varieties of given language ranging depending on region or socioeconomic factors  Vary according to geography (East end vs West end, Brooklyn vs midtown) and then socioeconomic factors…. Wealthier people vs “lower-class” people  Lexical differences. coke, pop, soda and sneakers, tennis (shoes), basketball shoes  Isoglosses: lines you can draw across regional area  Variablevariants , dark carbonated beveragesoda, pop, coke o Sometimes in vocal sounds too (ex: postvocalic /r/ ... park “park”,”paak”)  Social linguistics… dialectology  Ebonics is a dialect (AAVE is the subculture) o Registers  Career fields, so many of them with their own words/jargons o Styles  Different way you speak to different people (honorifics)  Courtroom (ex: though everyone can speak & understand Spanish, in court of law everyone has to speak in English and go through a legal translator… there is a whole formality to it), interviews, etc.  Formality associated with style o Taboo forms  What terms are taboo in your own culture  Most pervasive types: sex, body parts or excretions, religion  Reflect strong cultural values… what things are considered taboo… all in accordance to style  What taboo means varies on register, style and who you’re talking to/context  Insight into our own cultures … over a dozen taboo forms for women while only like one for men… that’s sad  OUR LANGUAGE IS SEXIST as well as other languages.. reflect deep ideological and cultural notions about how sexuality should be Language & Gender 3/31/2016  Diminished & restricted roles for women in our language and culture  Dialects & subculture o Ebonics… subculture is AAVE o Historically, parts of AAVE come from SLAVERY o Constant obstacle to overcome… whether or not it would work? o Being stressed to learn a form o The way we perceive dialect is greatly dependent on the way we perceive culture/society  Ex: ax or ask & double negatives: systematically a lot of things differ completely different dialect o Not learning a English dialect (properly) but learning a new dialect…. “on the line” vs “in the line” in vs on (plane, bus , line, etc…) o Perceptual dialectology- perception of a dialect o People tend to find their dialect “most correct” or mostly dialect of the capital city is seen as “most correct” o Pleasant sounding (referring to how one talks….dialect)usually someone’s own dialect o Strong perception that language encodes social reality  Society changesperception changes  Jamamaji- menstrual hut; once a girl gets period she gets into the hut, when she gets she gets beaten by the men with sticks… rite of passage into womanhood (also rape can be rite of passage) *based off of standard American English  Men vs women  Lang & gender reflects societal concepts/diff o Many variables involved  Taboo formslanguage helps constructs gender  Culture defines gender o What is means to be a man/woman varies across cultures o Ex: generalized cultural definition of… (primarily western)  “men”: edudiploma; $ acquisition of capitalincome; puberty rite of passage, becoming sexually active, however doesn’t mean that you’re a woman if you’re not initiated as “man” (you’re a boy)  “woman”: bear children (“mom”, some sitatuons); menstural cycle; genital mutilation (Africa, SE Asia) o Expectiations to look phsycally “woman”/”man” o Gender is construed in parts through language  Titles,terms and taboo forms  Titles  “what is your name”  Name reflects gender in most cases  Paternal lineage of last name (from dad)  Giving off the genes, history, last name (which traces heritage through male lineage)  Husbands owning wivesPOSESSION  Default form of something (in many languages) is MASCULINE  Widowwidower Marke  Prostitutemale-prostitute d  Mr. and Mrs.--> Mr. is for everyone; Mrs., Ms., miss forms married, not married, tends to be divorcee=are they or are they not attached to a man o Identity/naming structured on such practices o Language changesocietal change  Options:  Women takes man’s name  Use both (hyphenated)  Form a blend of 2 last names  No change (reputation… ex: some teachers don’t change last name bc all academic papers are written under maiden name)  Get rid of last name  Subtle ways that language constructs gender o Myth: women speak more than men o Power, Perception of judgement, Selection bias o Most people in power are men. o Forced into our perceptions of gender (women expected to gossip, so its normal to gossip, thus women gossip) o Differences on how women and men speak o Statistical tendencies  Pitch-women tend to have higher pitch  Height-men tend to be taller, longer vocal chords, lower pitch  Attractiveness (society and biology #1-9 recording audio files... made women count from 1-9, men asked which women they thought were more attractive)  Women who were ovulating were more attractive (based on just voice)  Men did not understand why they found certain voice more attractive, linguistics


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