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Week 12 (Language, Problem Solving)

by: Emily Lowe

Week 12 (Language, Problem Solving) PSYC 2014

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2014 > Week 12 Language Problem Solving
Emily Lowe
GPA 3.356

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About this Document

Here are the notes from 11/16 on the end of the Language unit and 11/18 which is the Problem Solving Unit. It also includes a discussion of the multiple choice class question from 11/11 and 11/16. ...
Cognitive Psychology
Dopkins, S
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Wednesday November 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 11/18/15
Monday, November 16, 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question 11/10 - Dysarthria is associated with damage to __________. • the connection between Broca’s area and the motor cortex • the connection between Wernicke’s area and the motor cortex • the angular gyrus Language Continued - Neuropsychology of Language • Why do we talk about this? - We talk about it because we know what is going on there • It was one of the first higher functioning of the brain that was understood and so we know a lot about it • Broca’s Aphasia (same as Nonfluent Aphasia) • Dysarthria • Anomia - Symptoms: patient has difficulty retrieving names of category instances • Knowing the names of things is the fundamental problem • Category Instances are essentially just words (types of birds, types of flowers, types of entertainment, etc) - Damage: to the Angular Gyrus (in the Parietal Lobe) • Between Wernicke’s area, visual cortex, and somatosensory cortex - VIDEO: women could describe what the object in the picture does but she cannot come up with the word “saw” • She knew what a saw does and where she keeps the one she owns but could not come up with the word “saw” 1 Monday, November 16, 2015 - Angular Gyrus: involved in maintaining what the types of words are • Why does it make sense that the area that preserves the words in your language? - It is in the center of vision, hearing, and touch areas • These three things are all ways in which we categorize the world around us • A word is a sound made to indicate some category that usually has some aspect of each three of those characteristics Wernicke’s Aphasia • - Symptoms: Patient speaks fluently but with little meaning • Basically just talking without really saying anything/conveying any meaning - VIDEO: guy is asked to explain a picture shown to him and he just talks in circles • Really can’t say much about the picture - Damage: Wernicke’s Area (in the Temporal Lobe) • Between the auditory cortex and the Angular Gyrus • Wernicke’s Area: links meaning up with the sound needed to convey the meaning/word - Language and Environment • Feral Children - Children living outside human society - A few cases of children who, for various reasons, have not had a typical environment - Feral technically means: “wild” - They lack the ability to speak - VIDEO: girl who was raised in a kennel (abandoned by her parents) who literally acted like a dog • Barked, ran/walked on all fours, etc - Intelligence and Language 2 Monday, November 16, 2015 • Down Syndrome - Three copies of chromosome 21 - IQ between 50 and 75 - Linguistic abilities subnormal - A case where there are issues with both language and intelligence - VIDEO: child with down syndrome who is very high functioning in her speech Williams Syndrome • - Defective gene on chromosome 7 - IQ between 50 and 75 - Normal grammatical ability - Talkative and friendly - VIDEO: people with this syndrome, all extremely happy all the time - A case where there are issues with intelligence but language is in tact - Language as Cognitive Filter • Watson’s Position - Thought carried out in terms of language - Thought is subvocal speech - When you think, you are just talking to yourself - He was a behaviorist - why does this make sense? • Internal states are not something that should be questioned; only behavior should be studied • Watson’s thought: speech is a behavior so, because he felt there wasn’t anything but behavior, thinking is essentially just speaking very quietly - Most would say that thought is not simply speech • Smith, Brown, Toman & Goodman Experiment - S injected with curare, which paralyses muscles 3 Monday, November 16, 2015 • You are essentially frozen when you are shot with curare - Asked himself if he continued to think and he did! • Continues to think - This totally refuted Watson’s position • Sapir - Whorf Hypothesis - The language that you speak shapes your thinking about the world In other words, thinking uses the words of speaking in order to understand the • world • These are the color words in OUR language that most everyone will know in our culture (11 colors) ——————> - If a culture has fewer than these words, then we can predict which colors they will have and which colors be gone • Ex: If a culture only has 7 colors, they are going to have white, black, red, yellow, green, blue, and brown • Ex: If a culture only has 3 colors, they are going to have white, black, and red - Why would a culture have fewer color words? • They just essentially define colors differently - Ex: If they have three colors, red is going to be what we think of red, white will be orange, yellow, green, and black will be clue, indigo, and violet - Their dark is blue—->violet and light is green—->red - So what happens if these people need to make a distinction between two different dark colors? • Focal Color: best instance of a basic color - Can’t reject it completely but there have been many attempts to do so • Rosch Experiment 4 Monday, November 16, 2015 - Dani, an Indonesian subpopulation, have only two color words - corresponding to our dark and light • Dani S’s learn to associate clan names with colors - Ex: using “Fikuf” (a clan name) to identify a focal red or an unsaturated red (link a pink) • Whorf Hypothesis predicts that - because the Dani don’t have the word for “red,” then they won’t do any better with a good red (focal red) or bad red (pink) whereas • The findings were that the Dani actually did the same as the westernized people - What can you say against this experiment against the Whorf hypothesis? 5 Monday, November 16, 2015 Cognitive Psychology Problem Solving Continued - The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis predicts • A. That if a language has three color words they should be black, white and red • B. That languages should have different numbers of color words • C. That speakers of a language with few color words should understand color differently than speakers of a language with many color words Target Article #3 Discussion - Alexigram: a little symbol • Their technique of training chimps is with a computer set up where the computer will present these symbols and the chimp has to present the correct symbol to indicate that it understands - Theories: It isn’t really evident from the article but we talked about a point of view in lecture • that he thinks we could bring in here - Not labeled a theory but instead a POV • Want a general way of thinking about language that is in the background of language - Want general framework in approach to this • Not necessarily one right answer Nothing in the actual paper that states exactly what the theory is • - Alternate hypothesis will be very hard to answer • If you can think of anything that makes sense for this and he will give us credit - IV and DV • DV: not that hard 6 Monday, November 16, 2015 • IV: when you think about this, think about what they are manipulating that is of theoretical importance - They are manipulating some stuff that isn’t really of theoretical importance - Can’t just say the task • Just one big picture for the IV… one they were manipulating across the entire study - Prior research • Flexible in how you view this • Possible that the research can justify doing this study in various ways - Basis of prior research, you can predict the outcome of the study Problem Solving - Try to solve this problem: • “A businessman brought back from Europe four pieces of chain in solid gold, each consisting of three links. His wife went to a jeweler and said, ‘I want you to connect these pieces to make a necklace. How much will it cost?’ The jeweler told the lady, ‘I charge $2.50 to break a link and $2.50 to melt it together again. Since you have four corners, it will cost you $20.’ The lady said, ‘That's too much. Actually you can do it for $15.’ The problem, then, is to construct a necklace, breaking and joining only three links.” - Can do this by breaking up chain D completely (2 breaks) and then using those three links to connect the other strands (A, B, and C) (3 links) - Representing the Problem • “One morning, exactly at sunrise, a Buddhist monk began to climb a tall mountain. The narrow path, no more than a foot or two wide, spiraled around the mountain to a glittering temple at the summit. The monk ascended the path at varying rates of speed, stopping many times along the way to rest and to eat the dried fruit he carried with him. He reached the temple shortly before sunset. After several days of fasting and meditation, he began his journey back along the same path, starting at sunrise and again walking at variable speeds with many pauses along the way. His average speed descending was, of course, greater than his average climbing 7 Monday, November 16, 2015 speed. Was there a single spot along the path the monk occupied on both trips at precisely the same time of day?” - The answer is yes • You solve this by saying that there has to be a place where he meets himself because there is only one path - It won’t be right in the middle because he is going faster on the way down, so it is probably on the way down • Mutilated Checkerboard Problem - “Is there a way to arrange 31 dominoes so that each checkerboard square is covered by a domino?” • Because there are an unequal numbers of red and black squares, you cannot cover them all with dominos because a single domino would need to cover and red and black square - Types of Problems • Well-Defined Problems - Not a problem represented because it is well-defined • Ill-Defined Problems - Ex: What should we do until dinner? • What is a good solution to this? This is a hard problem because there are many solutions, some better than others, and therefore it is hard to come up with a solution - Moral Problems • Ill-defined because they depend on your moral code, which may be somewhat ill-defined - Ex: “Your ship has sunk at sea. You are in the ocean with your mother, your spouse, and your child. Because of your poor swimming ability, and the absence of any flotation device, you can only save one person from drowning. Whom would you save?” 8 Monday, November 16, 2015 • Obviously no right or wrong answer here, it is only wrong/right in the context of the person’s morals • Everyone in the class could come up with justifying saving each person • Personal Reasoning - Solving morals problems that directly involve the reasoner • Supported by medial frontal and posterior cingulate gyri • Impersonal Reasoning - Solving moral problems that do not directly involve the reasoner • Supported by dorsolateral pre-frontal and parietal cortex - The previous one and this one differ to the degree they involve the person • Personal versus Impersonal - Ex: “Suppose that a trolley is running down a hill at a fast speed, heading towards five people at the bottom of the street. When it reaches them it will surely kill all of them. You are standing on a bridge with a tall man next to you. If you push the tall man off the bridge the trolley will stop but kill that man. Would you do it?” • PERSONAL because you actually have to touch the man and physically throw him off the bridge - Ex: “Suppose that a trolley is running down a hill at a fast speed, heading towards five people at the bottom of the street. When it reaches them it will surely kill all of them. You notice that there is a switch next to you that could direct the trolley to a side path where there is one man standing and once you do, it will be the one man that dies. Would you do it?” • IMPERSONAL because all you have to do is flip a switch Framing • - Phenomenon in which the description of a problem influences the way the solver represents and solves the problem - The way it is stated will affect the way you solve it 9 Monday, November 16, 2015 - Ex: • Even though these two things are essentially the same thing (you still are wasting $20 before purchasing the $20 ticket) • Most people opted to go to the theatre in problem 2 than in problem 1 • In between Ill-Defined and Well-Defined - Nine Dot Problem • Draw 4 lines that connect all of the dots without removing the pencil from the paper • Most people don’t think to go outside the confinement made by the dots and therefore cannot solve the problem - Problem Solving Through Insight and Creativity • Insight: sudden restructuring of problem, producing solution, involving special processes, not used in normal problem solving - It is in the nature of insight that this cannot be produced on cue or happen all the time - Ex: researcher put cat in this box and timed how long it took for the cat to get out of the box • Findings show that by chance, the cat just got out and so it is a gradual process of the cat realizing what it did to get out • AKA, the cat has no insight and does not know how to get out of the box - Two String Problem Tie the two strings together using on things in • the picture - Do this by tying the pliers to the string and set it up as a pendulum and catch it while its swinging • Functional Fixedness: Failure to solve a 10 Monday, November 16, 2015 problem because understanding of the problem components is limited by mental set, based on prior experience - Candle Problem: attach the lit candle to a door so that the candle is upright - Try these examples • What is greater than God? More evil than the devil? The poor have it. The rich want it. And if you eat it you’ll die… What is it? - Nothing • There is a man at home. That man is wearing a mask. There is a man coming home. What is happening? - It is a baseball scene - What helps you have insights? • Dopamine: a neurotransmitter that energizes a specific circuit in the brain ————> VIDEO: experiment where rats would run over very painful shock to get to a • petal which stimulating an electrode in their brain which stimulating the dopamine circuit - Similar to what human addicts will do for their drug • Dopaminergic Theory of Positive Affect - Neural circuits using neurotransmitter dopamine associated with positive mood - Dopamine circuits key to prefrontal cortex and working memory - Dopamine circuits, prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex key to cognitive flexibility 11


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