Week of notes March 29-31
Week of notes March 29-31 Biol 2230-001
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80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Notetaker on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2230-001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. John Cummings in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Chemical Digestion Taking polymers and breaking them into monomers How do we break stuff down? Hydrolysis! (breakdown using water) • Uses one molecule of water for every bond broken Hydrolysis Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides Glucose Sucrose Glycogen Fructose Lactose Starch Galactose Maltose Cellulose Oligosaccharides Breaking down polysaccharides into monosaccharaides; continuous process Intermediate is an oligosaccharides • Things we eat either contain starches or glycogen; we cannot digest cellulose • In order for things to be absorbed, has to be a monosaccharide! CarbohydrateDigestion Enzyme Location Substrate Salivary amylase Mouth Starch (salivary gland) Pancreatic amylase Small Intestine Starch (pancreas) Small Intestine Dextrinase (brush border) Oligo Glucoamylase Small Intestine Oligo (brush border) Small Intestine Maltase (brush border) Maltose Small Intestine Sucrase (brush border) Sucrose Lactase Small Intestine Lactose (brush border) Enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, where produced, and substrate Proteins We have multiple sources of protein: • Dietary (from food we eat) • Intrinsic (ones we have produced) • Enzymes • Mucosal cells • enzymesbe digested by protein digested • Chief cells • Produce pepsin • Breaks down long chains of amino acids • Babies • Produce reninbecause living off milk, not produce by adults very much • Renin breaks down milk proteins • Important in production of cheese in baby animals • Pancreas • Trypsin • Chymotripsin • Carboxypeptidase • Also produced by brush border • Split off a single amino acid • Brush border • A• Split off a single amino acid • D• Substrate is a dipeptide ProteinDigestion • Pancreas • Produced lipase • Only works in small intestine (start and finish there) • Needs bile as an emulsifier in order to work • Get a free fatty acid and a monoglyceride (the breakdown products) LipidDigestion • Pancreas • Pancreatic nuclease • Takes really long molecules and breaks into smaller • Brush border • Nucleosidase • Phosphatase • Both break down the smaller pieces until end up with free nucleotides • Brush border NucleicAcidDigestion AbsorptionProcesses • Takes place in jejunum • Almost everything is absorbed here except bile salts & water • Things either pass into blood vessels or lacteals (lymphatic vessels) Ø Active transport into villi capillaries and delivery to liverà requires energy • Everything is delivered to liver through hepatic portal system (a specialized capillary system) • Liver processes it Ø Simple diffusion into villi lacteals and delivery to blood by lymph • Aided by micelles • Doesn’t require energy • Lipids get delivered into lacteals Nutrient • Latin origin • “to nourish” • Nutrient • Any substance used by the body to promote growth, provide maintenance, or to be involved in repair Nutrients • Water • 60% of foo we eat is water • In plants, meat… • Importance is that in order for things to be biologically active, have to be in solution! Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Use directly to produce ATP or as building blocks • If we take in more than we need, have ability to store for later use • Most come from plates we consume • But can get carbs from animals Nutrients • Lipids • Mostly neutral fats • Most of fats in our diet are animal fats, called saturated fats • Cause an increase in cholesterol • Can also be from plant fats • Unsaturated fats; healthier Nutrients • Proteins • Animal proteins are called proteins • Contains all essential amino acids needed by body • Plant proteins are called incomplete • Because missing one or more of essential amino acids Nutrients • Vitamins • Food we eat contains vitamins • not used as building blocks, instead function as coenzymes in body • Allow us to utilize everything else • Water soluble • Cannot pass through plasma membranes • Cant accumulate, so cant become toxic • Fat soluble • Can pass across plasma membrane and can be stored inside body • Could become toxic if get too many Nutrients • Minerals • Not used for energy, but necessary for building or for processes • Ex: sulfur is used for construction of cartilage • Ex: calcium for bones or muscle contraction Metabolism= use of nutrients • Greek word • “biochemical act of conversion” Metabolism 2 processes: • Anabolism • Buildup; take small subunits and build back into polymers • Catabolism • Breakdown; take big molecules and break into smaller units Overview of energy production • Chemical digestion and transport of products to cells • Cells use products; take things out of circulation • Anabolism of lipids, proteins and glycogen OR catabolism of pyruvic acid and acetyl- CoA • Cellular respiration in mitochondria • Produces ATP energy Oxidation is the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogenà lose energy Reduction is addition of hydrogen à adds energy Ø Dehydrogenases Ø Removing a hydrogen or adding a oxygen Ø Catalyze oxidation Ø Oxidases Ø Also catalyze oxidation Ø Coenzymes Ø Hydrogen acceptors Ø Ex: NAD & FADH Redox Enzymes (pairing reduction and oxidation) A TP Synthesis Occurs on different levels: • Substrate-level phosphorylation • Direct transfer of a phosphate to an ADP • Get ATP • Don’t get much energy • Oxidative phosphorylation • Oxygen must be present • Create a gradient of protons based on coenzyme molecules carrying hydrogen Carbohydrate Metabolism • “glycolysis” is substrate level of phosphorylation 1. Glucose enters cells by facilitated diffusion 2. Glucose immediately phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate • One directional process so the concentration of glucose outside cell is greater than inside 3. Glycolysis continues and results in formation of 2 molecule of pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of NADH and a net gain of 2 molecules of ATP 4. If oxygen is present, oxidative phosphorylation occurs Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Pyruvic acid converted to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria • Generates CO 2nd NADH 2. Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle • Generates 2 CO , 2 NADH, 1 ATP and 1 FADH 2 3. Reduced Kreb’s cycle coenzymes enter electron transport chain 4. Hydrogens used to phosphorylate ADP • Generates H2O and 34 ATP **get a lot more energy when oxygen is available Excess Glucose • High ATP levels (more energy than we need) stop glycolysis • Glucose converted to gylcogen • Put into storage • Process is called “glycogenesis” • Glycogen stored until energy needed • Drop in blood glucose stimulates “glycogenolysis” • Reverse process Gluconeogenesis (Production of new glucose) • Insufficient glucose availability prompts conversion of glycerol and amino acids • Occurs in liver Lipid Metabloism • Absorbed lipids broken down by plasma enzymes into glycerol and fatty acids • Glycerol converted to glyceraldehyde phosphate • Glyceraldehyde phosphate then converted to pyruvic acid in glycolysis • Pyruvic acid enters Kreb’s cycle • Fatty acids broken into acetic acid in mitochondria • Acetic acid fused with CoA to form acetyl-CoA • Acetyl-CoA also enters Kreb’s cycle • Get more energy from a molecule of fat than from carbs Excess Lipids • High ATP and glucose levels trigger conversion of glycerol and fatty acids into triglycerides for storage • Convert extra into fat in adipose tissue • Lipolysis reverses process • Breaking down stored lipid Protein Metabolism • Amino acids deaminated • Pull amine group off • Deaminated molecules converted to pyruvic acid or to Kreb’s intermediates to to be used to generate energy in electron transport • High ATP levels cause pyruvic acid formed through deamination to be converted to glucose • Glucose then converted to glycogen via glycogenesis • Hormones control protein synthesis on ribosomes Excess Proteins Temperature Regulation NutrientPools Can use nutrients immediately (for cell products or energy), or store them, or MetabolicStates • Absorptive • During or right after a meal • Absorbing stuff; nutrients are absorbed into circulatory system • Predominately anabolic process • Glucose levels are high • Postabsorptive • Between meals; gastrointestinal tract is empty • Breakdown reserves • Catabolic process • Glucose levels are low (so have to raise it) *These maintain blood glucose levels! HormonalControl • Insulin • Released if glucose levels are high • Takes glucose out of circulation • Glucose diffuses into cells, increase in production of glycogen • Primary hormone of absorptive state • Also promotes protein synthesis • Glucagon • Released if low blood glucose levels • Promote gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis (breakdown of lipids) *Both function through negative feedback loops, both produced by islets in pancreas • Sympathetic stimulation • Low blood glucose causes autonomic NS to send sympathetic signal to areas of storage (especially adipose tissue) • Cause storage reserves to release energy • Postabsorptive state • Epinephrine • Sympathetic impulse to adrenal medulla to release Epinephrine • Promotes glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogelipolysis NeuralControl LiverFunctions • Produce very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) • Acarrier protein with lots of cholesterol bound to it • to be bound to a carrier to be transported so has • Needed by cells to synthesize membranes, to create steroids • The more lipid we put on a protein, the lower its density • LDL is released by liver into circulation à bad cholesterol • Clog heart valves, lead to stroke… • Break down HDL • HDL is the good cholesterol • Cells strip cholesterol off LDL • HDL goes back to liver to be packed again MetabolicRate • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) • The energy produced to maintain life; just the essential necessities • Subject has to be in a postabsorptive state and be relaxed • • Device to measure heat production directly • Respirometer • production; indirectly measures heatsumption or CO2 • Total metabolic rate (TMR) • All of the metabolic activity, not just essential All metabolic actions produce heat! Heat is representative of energy production BodyTemperature = a balance between heat production and heat loss; roughly constant HeatExchange • Radiation • Movement of heat to or from the environment • Always from high to low • If you are warmer than the environment HeatExchange • Radiation • Conduction • Heat exchange from contact • Ex: in picture the parts touching snow are losing heat through conduction HeatExchange • Radiation • Conduction • Convection • Movement of air • Ex: fanning air to increase amount of heat exchange HeatExchange • Radiation • Conduction • Convection • Evaporation • Conversion of liquid water to gaseous water • Sweating puts water on surface of body, vaporizes causing heat to leave with it • Promotes cooling • Called “sensible water loss” • Can also have “insensible water loss” • We don’t mean to, like with breath Heat-PromotingMechanisms • Vasoconstriction • Close sphincters to keep blood at the core of body so heat doesn’t escape Heat-PromotingMechanisms • Vasoconstriction • Increase metabolic rate • Done by releasing epinephrine, activating adrenal medulla • Non-shivering thermogenesis Heat-PromotingMechanisms • asoconstriction • Increase metabolic rate • Shivering • Muscle contraction generates heat Heat-PromotingMechanisms • asoconstriction • Increase metabolic rate • Shivering • Thyroxine release • Babies unique way; adults cant use this method • Increase thyroid hormone, more thyroid activity Heat-PromotingMechanisms • Vasoconstriction • Increase metabolic rate • Shivering • Thyroxine release • Behavioral mechanisms • Wearing warm clothing, becoming changing posture, warm drinks… Heat-LossMechanisms • Vasodilation • Helps us lose heat • Let blood go to surface Heat-LossMechanisms • asodilation • Sweating • By increasing perspiration, increase sensible heat loss Heat-LossMechanisms • asodilation • Sweating • Behavioral mechanisms • Wearing light colored or loose fitting clothes, reducing activity, finding cooler spot, water Fever If we respond to antigen with fever… 1. Infected cells release pyrogens 2. release prostaglandinsalamus to 3. Prostaglandins reset thermostat (set higher) 4. Vasoconstriction and shivering result 5. Body temperature increases
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