HIST 1010, Week 14 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 14 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 November 17, 2015 I. India: Rise and Decline of the Mughal Empire a. Flourishing under Akbar b. Decline under Aurangzeb and After II. The Ottoman Empire: A Slow Decline Today’s Questions What were some of the ways in which the Islamic world was flourishing in the 16 century? Why th did the power of Islamic empires begin to wane in the 17 century, and what was the role of Europeans in that decline? India: Rise and Decline of the Mughal Empire By the 15 century, the Islamic cultural sphere had rebounded from its earlier crises (Mongol invasions, etc.) o Prosperous, peaceful, flourishing place really exemplified in India The Development of the Mughal Empire o The Mughal forces were so effective because the political regime that was intact in India was very old-fashioned militarily (spears, etc.) The Mughal empire was using gunpowder o The Mughal empire got really lucky with their leaders Only 6 emperors over the course of 200 years Gives a lot of stability to this society o Akbar the Great, most important leader of the Mughal empire (reigned 1556-1605) Really sets the patterns for the rest of the prosperous period The height of Mughal power by almost any measure Artistically flourishing, strong in dealing with European traders Patterns of tolerance are being set “The key weakness of the Mughal empire was that it was a small group of Muslim leaders trying to lead a huge group of Hindus” Implemented multiculturalism All government jobs were equally open to Hindus and Muslims Abolished a tax that had been put in place for visiting Hindu shrines Abolishes the extra tax for if you weren’t a Muslim In order to still have sufficient funds to run the government, he implements a land tax Perhaps the first time in the world that nobles are taxed in the same way as everybody else Ordered troops to protect all religious sites (Hindu and Muslim) o Akbar is motivated by the fact that the people he is ruling are not all Muslim It was only practical to treat everyone equally He was intellectually curious o Under Akbar and his successors, it is also a place of artistic flourishing Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 Most notably, the Taj Mahal (built for the successor’s wife) Artistic tradition of painting miniatures adopted from Persia o A lot openness with who had access to political power Akbar eliminated the standing military aristocracy that had been previously used to run India and replaces them instead with a bureaucracy in which every official was appointed for a set time Implements term limits o Very innovative for the time Enables the Mughal empire, for a while, to avoid plaguing the empire with perpetual access to political power The Mughal Empire: Key Attributes o Muslim empire marked by extreme religious tolerance and multiculturalism, policies supporting which were established by Akbar and lasted until the reign of Aurangzeb o Bureaucracy built on concept of term limits and open office holding to people regardless of religion o Economically thriving; permitted Europeans to trade on the subcontinent. In the 17 century, this trade began to undermine the empire in several different ways In addition to changing the kinds of taxes that were collected, under Akbar the way in which taxes were paid also shifted Previously, regional tax collectors collected not in cash but usually in share crops that were passed onto the central government When he shifts to the land tax, he also shifts away from the share cropping system and instead requires taxes to be paid in cash This shift, in turn, led to increasing commercialization A cash-based economy developed o Surplus crops were sold, or crafts, or fabric, etc. in order to pay their taxes Middlemen would pay people for their goods and usually take them to market to sell there The cash that is being minted is silver; they are getting it through trade with the Europeans Changes under Aurangzeb (ruled 1658-1707) o Economic strength enabled regions to assert more autonomy, especially after Aurangzeb’s death o His rejection of multiculturalism also strained the empire even as he expanded it geographically Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim, unlike Akbar He believes he should be running a Muslim empire He seeks to dismantle the multiculturalism of the state o Reinstating taxes, tearing down Hindu shrines, etc. o Trying to make India a truly Muslim empire again and expand Islam Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 While he is alive the empire stays together, but after his death the empire falls apart o Central autonomy eroded, enabling Europeans to exert more direct control, as British did in Bengal th There had been English trading posts in Bengal since the beginning of the 17 century The British begin buying increasing amounts of raw material, which seems good for everyone, at first However, it is actually slowly killing domestic manufacturing in Bengal o People lose the skill to make things themselves and a shortage of raw materials causes prices to rise By the early 18 century, they become dependent on the English Just by coming in, trading, paying better prices (in gold and silver), they are tipping the economic balance in a bad way The Ottoman Empire: A Slow Decline Reached its peak in about the 15 century, but it is still a large and powerful empire in 1700 There are manufacturing guilds, Sufi brotherhoods, etc., all of which control aspects of life quite closely o They maintain this elaborate social structure with Ottoman schools Structures of Ottoman Society o Ottoman schools tracked boys into careers at a young age by training them as civil servants, Sufi mystics, or future members of the ulama (religious authorities). Boys not sent to one of these schools were destined to be craftsmen and were trained by guilds Part of how the Ottoman empire maintains social structure o Law also a crucial part of keeping the empire together, as the Ottomans had created a comprehensive legal code that extended well beyond religious, sharia law and governed every aspect of society, from interactions between civil and religious leaders to how one should dress Very elaborate legal code Constructed a civilian legal code that went alongside the religious legal code that governed every situation they could think of It is in the 16 century that the Ottoman empire stops expanding In 1529 they try to take Vienna and they fail The empire never grows again It is not shrinking, but simply being stable was not enough o Ottoman rulers had banned trade outside of the empire o Expanding and gaining new territory was the only way to grow to economy Expansion was a safety valve If one way of living wasn’t working out, move to the newly acquired land and try something else Europeans start to come in and a black market in raw materials emerges Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 They pay very good prices, and in gold and silver Economic Problems of the Ottoman Empire o End of continuous expansions causes economic pressure because it eliminates new market and new producers o Trade with Europeans illegal, but they come in anyway and a thriving black market develops The money is illegally gained, so they have limited options on what they can spend it on Mostly spent on European luxury goods o European trade offers no benefits to Ottoman government because it is illegal, and leads to severe inflation which further weakens the Ottoman economy The money doesn’t do anything to help the economy because it comes from the Europeans and goes back to them, too It is, in fact, causing inflation Prices are going way, way up because there is a scarcity of raw materials As a result, the Ottoman empire starts printing more money Bad idea Hardest on people with fixed incomes People in the government o To bridge that gap, government officials start requiring bribes before they will start doing their jobs Is still able to maintain its military strength, so nobody is trying to take them over in the 17 century The empire is still weakening, and distant regions, such as Egypt, start becoming autonomous The early modern period is not a time when things start crashing down, but things are starting to weaken, decay, and fall apart Terms and Wrap-Up Akbar the Great—religious intolerance—Bengal—black market What were some of the ways in which the Islamic world was flourishing in the 16 century? Why did the power of Islamic empires begin to wane in the 17 century, and what was the role of Europeans in that decline? November 19, 2015 I. China a. Daily Life in China, 1600-1700 b. The Economics of Silver c. Ming to Qing II. Japan: Centralization and Growth Today’s Questions Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 What were some of the ways in which the China and Japan were flourishing in the 16 and 17 th centuries? How did those governments seek to regulate economic interactions with Europeans, and why did they focus on minimizing European involvement in their nations? China Life of people in China in 1600 o Living in a pretty prosperous country Booming economically for a while The population also really booms, so by 1650 China was home to about one- third of the world’s population About 90% of the population of China lives in the countryside Overwhelmingly rural nation o Life for Chinese peasants in the countryside Most of them were illiterate, so there’s very little primary documents written from their perspective Average life expectancy was about the global median (late 30s-early 40s) Diets were varied and more than adequate Evidence of plenty of warm clothes in the winter Most families produced enough surplus crops that they could sell o The census system estimated a household at an average of 6 people Husband and wife, some children (2-3 is probably the average), likely one parent of the husband or wife Powerful incentive to lie to the census people for tax purposes o Very strict gender hierarchies Men head of household and lots of farming Rural women are responsible for the care of the children In the cities, working-class women had some opportunity to make a living Actress, singer, prostitute, house-hand Women of all classes remained under male control Not rare—this is fairly universal in Afro-Eurasia A few elite women found success as authors or popular actresses Seem to have created a backlash An increasing number of plays or poems emphasize the conservative gender norms Social sanctions become increasingly rigid in the 17 century o Both had always been frowned upon, but by this time no woman from a “good family” took part in these things Foot binding also became a popular thing o Ways of relaxing Most people couldn’t read in rural areas, but there were travelling story-tellers who would come tell popular plays and stories Restaurants opened Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 These things were open to both men and women, despite the strict gender restrictions Group pilgrimages to religious shrines People in more urban areas also had access to mixed sex socializing Gender Roles in 17 Century China o Women restricted to the home most of the time, although peasant women would farm at times of peak labor o Remarriage by widows and premarital sex become increasingly taboo o Foot binding, already established among elite women, becomes far more widespread, further restricting women’s lives o Religion Confucianism was still the core of Chinese society Everyone playing their role in society and having their place o Clear relationship between Confucian ideas and gender norms More of a philosophy Lots of religious groups that have followings Buddhism, temples to ancestors, dowses temples Government didn’t try to enforce uniformity in religious practice o There was no official policy like in Mughal Empire, it was just kind of de facto None of these faiths are monotheistic, but all polytheistic Lots of gods, and the emperor holds the Mandate of Heaven o He is not, but because he holds the Mandate of Heaven, he is the most important person in making sure the country is moral and running and setting an example o Important harbor for morality The Economics of Silver o Chinese economy was starting to shift due to the sudden influx of all of the silver coming in Like rulers in the Mughal Empire, Ming leaders were initially not that concerned with Europeans in their country as long as they stayed in the handful of cities that they were allowed to trade in o Getting a lot of silver from Japan, and then silver starts coming from the Americas At first it was a boom to the economy As more currency circulates through the empire, manufacturing of goods like clothes really expands, especially in rural areas Further encouraged when the government changed the way it collected taxes; silver currency tax collection o (We saw this in India, too) o China has this weird combination of problems They have the booming economy, but inflation is happening and prices go up because everybody has plenty of silver Causes problems for people in the countryside Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 Shortage of silver in rural areas, but prices are still going up and they can’t afford anything o 90% of population is rural As a result, they take more things to market to make more money o Standard of living is still slipping, despite the expanding economy because they are still losing money o These problems increase; there is so much silver floating around globally that the global price of silver starts to drop International purchasing power drops significantly o Chinese economy hurting by 1639 Also a series of famines that happen in the north happen in the 1630’s o Lots of economic pressures that they can’t do anything about cause the Ming dynasty to fall apart Ming to Qing o Since the beginning of the 1620’s there had been growing bands of outlaw armies that try to destabilize the regime Eventually in the 1640s becomes strong enough that they capture Beijing in 1644 When Beijing falls, there’s a Ming military general defending the northern border Up there, a group of Manchu people have been gathering strength The military leader asks for help from the Manchu people for help kicking out the outlaw armies out of Beijing o He does, claims the Mandate of Heaven, and starts a new dynasty called the Qing dynasty (ruled by the Manchu people) o The Manchu people are interesting in terms of the leadership of China First leader claims the Mandate of Heaven and just starts being a new emperor However they are a completely different ethnic group of people than the Han Had to adjust in order to keep power The Qing Dynasty in power o Kept many key attributes of Ming government, such as civil service exams, a heavy emphasis on Confucian teachings as a way to organize society and government, and practicing religious tolerance Very, very old histories in China Put their own spin on things Put a lot more emphasis on conservative gender roles o Ban women from working as actresses Looks a lot like Mughal India (especially with the religious tolerance) o Did do some things to maintain Manchu cultural distinctiveness, such as requiring all men to wear their hair in a queue and prohibiting Manchu women from marrying Han Chinese men Taxes were also very heavily enforced on peasants The Qing really expand what China Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 Expansion of the empire helped the tax burden on the peasants More land made it easier to yield surplus crops The Qing also really praise agriculture as the backbone of the economy Europeans are still restricted trade-wise International trade is not central to the overall economic health of China in the 17 century o Unlike the Ottoman black market silver (came from Europeans and went right back to them), in China when the silver comes in, that silver stays in China o Qing leaders also don’t allow a lot of cultural influence from the Europeans Qing leaders are confident that they are superior culturally They had no interest—referred to them as barbarians (haha) Japan: Centralization and Growth Japan in this period completely succeeds in keeping Europeans out Governing Japan o Prior to 1603, Japan governed by local nobles known as daimyos, who worked with samurai warriors to keep the peace in their part of the country—local, small-scale government rather than centralized Japan was not a unified country Kind of a feudal system Elites rule There had been talk, off and on, about the need to create a more centralized government, so several start working together, and in 1603 a central government is established o In 1603, one daimyo leader claimed power over the whole island chain, declaring himself shogun and beginning the Tokugawa shogunate, which governed Japan for the next 250 years This creation is a really big turning point Chinese and European traders are coming in large numbers There are silver mines in Japan, so they don’t rely on these traders They don’t need anything at all from international trade, even silver Puts them in a really strong position for bargaining The islands are very, very prosperous The population increased by almost 15 million people in this century They unquestionably succeed in keeping Europeans out In 1635, the only foreigners allowed to dock in port were the Chinese, Koreans, and Dutch The Dutch get to stay because of religion o The shogunate government became incredibly hostile toward Catholic and Christian missionaries coming from the rest of Europe Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 14 o Japan’s religions are very polytheistic o Leadership of the shogunate passed from father to son, and samurai transitioned from warriors to bureaucrats, both of which increased the peace and stability of the country Japan and Europeans o All foreigners except Chinese, Korean, and Dutch banned from country in 1635 o Main issue was religion—Japanese rulers found Catholic missionaries incompatible with the multiple religions (such as Shinto and Buddhism) that were permitted on the islands because of their insistence on their God as the only one The shogunate leaders see the missionaries as a political threat In the 1630s they make the practice of Christianity illegal in Japan and kick out all of the missionaries As a result, they also kick out all the European traders except for the Dutch, who are Protestants o They weren’t interested in converting anyone, they were interested in trading and making money Often referred to as “The Closing of Japan” o Really just restricting access; not closing themselves off completely o An economic and political move taken by the government to prevent destabilization The elites are very interested in gaining knowledge from the people that are still coming in Wrap-Up th th What were some of the ways in which the China and Japan were flourishing in the 16 and 17 centuries? How did those governments seek to regulate economic interactions with Europeans, and why did they focus on minimizing European involvement in their nations?