November 16th Notes
November 16th Notes SRST 200
Popular in History of Sports and Leisure in America
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Popular in Physical Education
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
th November 16 , 2015 – History of Sports and Leisure Notes – Mark Shriver 1900’s 1905 – College Football Reform During the 1905 season, 18 deaths on field o 3 in college o Rest from private schools o 159 severe injuries on field Major bones broken, hospital, carted off field, couldn’t return 88 in college **occurred because of something that was legal at the time but not anymore *Mass-Momentum Plays – people could move before they would center or hike the ball, offensive run at defense Headmaster at Gratin Prep School – Endicott Peabody o Discussions of whether or not to keep football o Endicott decides to call meeting – calls President Teddy Roosevelt Asks him for help o Teddy Roosevelt hasn’t played but is in favor of it Thought it gave students discipline, character, morality Got army-navy game back on track because 1894-1898 was suspended 1. Conference at White House for violence of football, scheduled for October 9 , 1905 o Two days before an article about a player who got a brutal physical beating during UPenn and Swathmore o **pressure it put on the conference o Invited three schools: Harvard, Yale, Princeton Presidents from schools and Coaches Walter Camp o Wide range of opinions in the room o What they can do for football, how to change it Eliminate Mass-Momentum Plays Create a line of scrimmage Distance for first downs from 5 yards to 10 yards Create a neutral zone at the line of scrimmage Create a new way to move the ball – forward pass o *** Puts football on the front page th October 15 , 1905 o Roosevelt’s son gets injured at Harvard in a football game o It makes the headlines 2. Henry MacCracken th o NYU vs. Union College – October 25 , 1905 o Another player dies on the field o President of NYU – Henry MacCracken Calls 13 institutions and decides there needs to be more rule changes Meeting is on December 28 , 1905 in NYC No longer 13 institutions but 62 schools come together Create IAAUS – Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States In 1910, changes name to NCAA – National Collegiate Athletic Association 3. Schools Drop Football o An article everyday about how someone is injured/dies from football o Colombia University, Northwestern, Stanford, UCalifornia, Marquette drops their program o College presidents grew sympathetic to the press and the public *want to meet people’s needs and wants 4. Angell Conference o James Angell – President of University of Michigan o People come from all over – especially mid-west o Want to reform all college athletics not just football o *maintain highest ideal of amateurism o Form a league – Western Intercollegiate Athletic Conference o BIG 10 o Things they pass: Probation on summer training Freshman are ineligible to play varsity teams freshman year Every coach had to be given faculty status **keeps amateurism in play Bob Knight – faculty and coach ^^^ 4 parts of the football reform Rise and the Start of Youth Sports for Pre-Adolescent Boys Industrialization was a factor to this Youth sports programs have beginnings with local churches, and schools These programs were established to get kids involved 1903, NYC public school athletic leagues New York City Athletic League o Started by Gulick Whatever sports are popular for the time that’s what they would play o Football, baseball Shorter work day after laws are passed 1890-1910 o Number of children who are 15 and younger who are working has increased to almost 2 million 1916 – passage of Keating-Owens Act o Child labor laws o 2 million kids down to 1 million kids After school, kids do not know what to do because it was illegal to work o **Rise of after-school programs for kids 1929, establishment of Pop Warner Football o Originated in Philadelphia o Get kids into top physical shape o Teach them how to play football under safe conditions 1939, little league baseball is created o Williamsport, Pennsylvania 1930’s – see some opposition to youth competitive leagues o Schools are controlled instead of school or church, the community groups are running them – individuals* o Becomes too competitive 4 reasons they are against these competitive sports: o 1. Amount of commercialization was going on – local community has their name in advertisements and are promoting those types of businesses o 2. Thought it was damaging to kids physically and psychologically o 3. Thought it was elitist in nature o 4. Parental involvement Parents thought that Health and physical education teachers did not have enough healthy competition for kids YMCA, Boy Scouts By the 1940’s every adult controlled program, becomes competitive African Americans in Sport 1863 – Emancipation Proclomation o Many African Americans playing o African Americans become competitive o Exceled at boxing Jack Johnson o Heavyweight champion of boxing 1908-1915 o In 1908, first African American heavyweight champion o “great white hope” – to find someone to beat Johnson Bring back Jefferies – had to get back in shape Had a fight between Johnson vs. Jeffries in Reno, Nevada Jack Johnson o In 1908, both wives were white o Prideful, arrogant *convicted Johnson of violating the Mann Act o Couldn’t cross state lines with his wife who was white o Because Johnson traveled by train across country with his wife he was violating Horse Racing o All but one of Jockeys were African American o Isaac Murphy – jockey – won 44% of his races Won 3 kentucky derbys o out of first 28 kentucky derbys – 15 of them won by African Americans Bicycling o World one-mile track cycling championship in 1899 Moses Fleetwood Walker – negro baseball leagues o By the turn of the century, most African Americans are excluded from white sports by 1900 What they could compete in: Olympic – countries wanted to look good Boxing – didn’t take much intelligence, deemed acceptable College sports – wanted to look good, set themselves apart African Americans excluded for two major reasons: 2 supreme court rulings 1. Jim crow laws – ‘separate but equal’ – remained in effect until 1965 2. Plessy v. ferguson – upheld state’s laws allowed segregation in public facilities Early 1900’s Prominent American teams in mid-west and south who competed against the east’s By the end of WWI – African American baseball is number one entertainment for black populations