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Chem 1220 Notes Week 3/28 to 4/1

by: Phillip Fishbein

Chem 1220 Notes Week 3/28 to 4/1 Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry)

Phillip Fishbein
GPA 3.722

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About this Document

These notes finish up the material that will be on the next exam.
General Chemistry
Dr. Clark
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phillip Fishbein on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1220(Chemistry, Dr. Clark, General Chemistry) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Clark in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
Ligands o Monodentate  Only coordinates to the metal at one spot on molecule o Bidentate & Polydentate  Can coordinate to the metal at multiple spots  Typically larger molecules  i.e. Ethylenediamine (en) below  Formation Constants o Complex with larger formation constant forms more favorably o K fiffer because of Gibbs Free Energy  Chelate Effect (kee-late)  Larger K fave larger change in entropy  Chelating Agents o Remove or separate metal ions from a solution o i.e. EDTA removes poisonous trace metals in food  Energy in Coordinate Chemistry o Ligand’s electrons are attracted to metal cation  Increases energy of the d-orbitals o Crystal Field Splitting  Difference in energy among d-orbitals based on ligand geometry  Used to explain many observations about coordinate chemistry, such as color and magnetism  Octohedral Geometry  Ligands are along x, y, z axes  Raises energy of d z2and d x -yorbitals the most  Raises energy of other d orbitals less  Tetrahedral Geometry  Ligands come between axes 2 2 2  Raises energy of d z and d x -y orbitals less  Raises energy of other d orbitals the most  Ligands don’t bond as well to the d-orbitals o If difference in energy is within visible light spectrum, the solution is colored o Absorbance Data and Color of Solution  Solutions appear as the color(s) complementary to the light it absorbs  Complementary colors can be determined by a color wheel o Different ligands produce different d-orbital splitting  Cl < F < H O2< NH < 3n ¸NO (N-bo2ded) < CN -  Farther right is a greater split  Weak field ligands have smaller split  Strong field ligands have larger split o Coordination number is the number of spots available for ligands to connect to o Large splitting changes order for filling orbitals  Fill low orbitals completely before high o High-spin  Orbitals filled normally (weaker field ligands) o Low-spin  Orbitals filled in order for large split in orbital (stronger field ligands) o Tetrahedral Geometry  Ligands come between axes  Raises energy of d z2and d x -yorbitals less  Raises energy of other d orbitals the most  Ligands don’t bond as well to the d-orbitals  Always high spin Magnetic Properties o Affected by number of electrons o More unpaired electrons -> a larger magnetic moment o Paramagnetic molecules have magnetic moments  Molecular Orbital Theory o Diamagnetic molecules never have magnetic moments


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