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EXSS 175

by: Lynde Wangler
Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

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Lecture Notes Week 12 9A/B
Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik
Class Notes
Human Anatomy
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 175 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY in Physical Education at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
EXSS 175 Week 12 Notes 9A Respiratory System  Purpose of the Respiratory System: o Gas exchange – intake oxygen and deliver to body cells and elimination of CO2 produced by body cells; regulate blood pH level; contains receptors for the sense of smell, filters air, produces vocal sounds, excretes small amounts of water and heat  Organs in the Respiratory System STRUCTURE FUNCTION Nose/naval cavity Warms, moistens, and filters air as it is inhaled Pharynx (throat) Passageway for air, leads to trachea Larynx The voice box, where vocal chords are located Trachea (windpipe) Keeps the windpipe “open” – trachea is lined with fine hairs called cilia which filter air before it reaches the lungs Bronchi Two branches at the end of the trachea, each lead to a lung Bronchioles A network of smaller branches leading from the bronchi into the lung tissue and ultimately to air sacs Alveoli The functional respiratory units in the lung where gasses are exchanged  Gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells (gas = oxygen, carbon dioxide) o 3 Processes of Respiration:  Pulmonary Ventilation – movement of air – in lungs   out of lungs  Alveolar Respiration – movement of gases – lungs  blood  Tissue Respiration – movement of gases – blood   cells (diffusion)  General Pathway of Airflow: nose pharynx trachea bronchi lungs  Nasal Cavity: o Nose – covered with skin, supported internally by bone and cartilage o Nasal Cavity – hollow space behind nose, divided into R and L portions by nasal septum, anterior is cartilage, posterior is bone (vomer, ethmoid, maxillae, palatine) o 3 Areas   Vestibule – anterior portion just inside nostrils, lined with skin and coarse hairs (filter large dust particles)  Olfactory – roof of nasal cavity above superior nasal conchae, house olfactory cells (cranial nerve I = smell)  Respiratory – major portion; superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae; curl out from lateral walls (provide superior, middle, and inferior meatuses “groove-like passageways”); inhaled air is warmed as it moves through passageways and mucus is released to trap dust particles  Pharynx: “throat” o Location – behind oral cavity, between nasal cavity and larynx o Funnel-shaped tube about five inches long o Functions – passageway for air and food; provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds o 3 Subdivisions of Pharynx (NOL):  Nasopharynx (superior) – location: posterior to nasal cavity, extends to place of soft palate; functions: equalizes pressure between pharynx and inner ear via Eustachian tubes (auditory tubes)  Oropharynx (middle) – location: posterior to oral cavity, extends from soft palate to hyoid; function: respiratory and digestive pathway, houses two pairs of tonsils found here (palatine and larynx)  Laryngopharynx (inferior) – location: extends inferiorly from hyoid bone and becomes continuous with the esophagus posteriorly and larynx anteriorly; function: respiratory and digestive passageway  Larynx: “voicebox” o Short passageway connecting the pharynx (laryngopharynx) to trachea; location: midline of neck anterior to C4-C6 o Cartilages of Larynx –  Thyroid Cartilage – aka “adam’s apple” (forms anterior wall of larynx)  Epiglottis – large piece of elastic cartilage (leaf-shaped trapdoor hinged to thyroid cartilage); involved in swallowing  Swallowing pharynx and larynx rise epiglottis slides down seals off glottis prevents food and fluid from entering larynx, forces into esophagus  Glottis – pair of folds of mucous membranes (vocal folds – true vocal cords); rima glottides: space between the two folds  Cricoid Cartilage – ring of haline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of larynx (clinical landmark for tracheotomy – emergency air; only complete ring or cartilage in glottis/trachea)  Larynx Conditions: o Laryngitis – inflammation of the larynx; most often caused by a respiratory infection or irritants (i.e. smoking); inflammation of the vocal folds causes hoarseness or loss of voice by interfering with the contraction of the folds or by causing them to swell to the point at which they can’t vibrate freely o Cancer of the Larynx – almost exclusively in individuals who smoke  Trachea: “windpipe” – cartilage; tubular air passageway; location: anterior to esophagus, extends from larynx to T5; divides into R and L primary bronchi at T5 level (Carina – cartilaginous ring surrounding trachea at division point  Tracheotomy: “creating a whole in the trachea;” any type of obstruction (injury, swelling, foreign object, etc…) causing the airway not to function properly; a skin incision is made into trachea inferior to “cricoid cartilage” (patient breathes through a plastic or metal tracheal tube)  Bronchial Tree: o Branched airways leading from trachea to (large) air sacs in lungs (microscopic)  R and L Primary Bronchi  Lobe Bronchi (secondary bronchi)  Segmentary Bronchi (tertiary bronchi)  Bronchioles  Terminary Bronchioles  Respiratory Bronchioles  Alveolar ducts  Alveoli o Primary Bronchi: extrapulmonary; arise from trachea at level of T5; right is more vertical and wider (common site for objects to become lodged) o Secondary (lobar) Bronchi: one branch to each lobe of the lungs; right lung (3 lobes = 3 secondary bronchi superior, middle, inferior); left lung (2 lobes = 2 secondary bronchi  superior and inferior) o Tertiary (segmentary) Bronchi: smaller branches of bronchi; 10 total in each lung o Bronchioles: even smaller bronchi within the lungs o Terminal Bronchioles: end branches of bronchi; 50-80 per lobe o Respiratory Bronchioles: microscopic branches that penetrate deep into lungs (.55mm diameter = very short; few alveoli present on walls; named so because some air sacs bind to their sides (first structures in sequence that can take part in gas exchange) o Alveolar Ducts: 2-11 for each respiratory bronchiole; branch from each respiratory bronchiole o Alveoli: latin for “flask;” thin-walled microscopic air sacs that allow for air diffusion; each alveoli surrounded by capillary network  pulmonary membrane is very thin (alveolar capillary membrane) & allows for diffusion of gases across alveolar and capillary wall; Are prevented from collapsing by “surfactant” (keeps the surface tension down – like soap creates water bubble)  Lungs: o Pleural Membrane – serous membrane surrounding each lung; 2 layers  Visceral (deep) – lines outer surface of each lung, cavity is not opened to the outside  Parietal (superficial) – lines the walls of the interior thoracic cavity  Both layers are continuous with each other (balloon-like) o Pleural Space/Cavity – space between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes (small); both pleural membranes secrete a lubricating fluid (allows for frictionless breathing, easy sliding; causes pleural membranes to adhere to the other) 9B Respiratory System continued…  Lungs: soft, spongy, cone-shaped organs located in the thoracic cavity o Landmarks –  Base: broad inferior portion, concave  Apex: superior portion, narrow  Costal Surface: surface lying against ribs  Mediastinal Surface (medial): contains hilus (entrance and exit site of bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves)  Cardiac Notch: left lung only o Lobes and Fissures –  Right Lung: 3 lobes (superior, middle, inferior); 2 fissures (horizontal – superior, middle; olique – inferior – superior and middle)  Left Lung: 2 lobes (superior and inferior); 1 fissure (oblique – superior – inferior)  Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (“inspiration”): o Resting Pressure – inside lung pressure = atmosphere pressure (no air movement, normal resting pressure 760 mmHG sea level); changes in atmospheric pressure make it more difficult to breathe (i.e. mountain climbing and scuba diving) o 3 Basic Steps   Pulmonary Ventilation – inspiration and expiration of air between atmosphere and lungs  Alveolar (Pulmonary) Respiration – exchange of gases between air spaces of lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries (blood gains O2 and loses CO2)  Tissue Respiration – exchange of gases between blood in systematic capillaries and tissue cells (blood loses O2 and gains CO2) o Flow & exchange of air occurs due to pressure gradients (high to low); air moves into lungs (pressure in lungs < pressure of atmosphere) air moves out of lungs (pressure in lungs > pressure of atmosphere) o Inspiration: internal lungs pressure goes down with increasing lung size; expand lungs intra-alveolar pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure (air pushed into lungs by atmospheric pressure) o Lung Expansion: diaphragm muscle fibers contract (innervation: phrenic nerve); diaphragm moves inferiorly (“flattens out”) allows thoracic cavity to enlarge intra-alveolar pressure falls to about 2 mmHg below atmospheric pressure air is then forced into lungs (accounts for about 75% of air entering lungs; obesity, pregnancy, etc. – can restrict diaphragm from flattening out causing breathing difficulties  Also, external intercostal muscles contract; other muscles contract during labored breathing (sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis major); ribs and sternum undergo elevation  Rising anterior-posterior dimension of thoracic cavity; further decreasing intra-alveolar pressure allows more air to enter  Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (“expiration”): o Reversal of pressure gradient (intra-alveolar pressure > atmospheric pressure); normal expiration depends on 2 factors: 1) normal recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration & 2) inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid o Begins when inspiratory muscles relax; as the external intercostals relax, the internal intercostals contract (ribs depress and diaphragm relaxes and elevates; dome of diaphragm moves superiorly); decreased lung space  increased intra-alveolar pressure; increased intra-alveolar pressure forces air out; additional muscles may assist in increasing pressure for forced expiration (abdominal muscles – external and internal obliques, rectus and transverse abdominis)  Asthma – chronic inflammation of airway; airway obstruction may be due to smooth muscle spasms in walls of smaller bronchi and bronchioles (excessive mucus production)  Emphysema – destruction of alveoli walls; causes abnormally large air spaces that remain filled during expiration (less surface area for gas exchange); loss of elastic fibers in lungs (loss of elastic recoil – expiration difficult); causes: long-term smoking, air pollution  Pneumonia – acute infection or inflammation of alveoli; cause alveoli damage and excessive mucous secretion (alveoli fill with debris and exudate); interferes with ventilation and gas exchange  Pneumothorax/ Hemothorax – pleural cavity filled with air (pneumo-) and/or blood (hemo-); increases pressure on lungs (difficulty breathing, may cause lungs to collapse due to high pressure; lung is no longer able to function properly)  Nose: o This is where the oxygen first enters your body and carbon dioxide leaves; air comes into your nose and is filtered by tiny hairs and moistened by mucus in your nose   Pharynx and Trachea: o Air passes from the nose to the lungs; pharynx gathers air after it passes through your nose and then the air is passed down to your trachea; trachea is held open by incomplete rings of cartilage   Bronchial Tree: o trachea splits up into primary bronchi; the primary bronchi split up to form the bronchioles; the bronchioles keep getting smaller and getting smaller and finally end with small air sacs (alveoli)   Alveoli: o Tiny air sacs with air/oxygen when you breath in; surrounded by capillaries; the walls of your alveoli are so thin that the oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through them, traveling right into, or out of your blood stream  Key Words: o Respiratory System – the group of organs in your body that are responsible for taking in oxygen and breathing out the CO2, which is the waste product of cellular respiration o Oxygen – the gas that your body needs to work and function o Carbon Dioxide – the waste product (gas) that is produced through respiration of people and animals o Nose/Nasal Cavity – where oxygen first enters your body; tiny hairs help filter the air and air is moistened and heated by your nose; your nose leads into your nasal cavity o Mouth/Oral Cavity – oxygen/air can also enter through your mouth but it is not filtered; your mouth opens up into your oral cavity o Sinus – a cavity in the bones of your skull that helps moisten and heat the air that you breathe o Pharynx/ Throat – gathers air from your nasal and oral cavities and passes it to your trachea o Trachea/ Windpipe – a tube-like pathway that connects your throat to your Bronchi tubes and lungs; air passes through it when it travels from the pharynx to the bronchi tubes o Bronchi Tubes – each tube (one per lung) splits up into many smaller tubes called bronchiole, like branches on a tree o Bronchiole – keep splitting up until they reach your alveoli o Respiratory Bronchiole – the air-tubes that are actually connected to the alveoli o Alveolar Duct – the final tube, which is part of the alveoli, that leads to the air sacs o Alveolar Sac – where the chemical change takes place and where blood cells pick up oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide o Alveoli – tiny air-sacs at the end of your alveolar duct; they fill up with oxygen and are surrounded by capillaries o Capillaries – tiny blood streams (around one cell wide) that surround your alveoli; they take oxygen out of lungs and replace it with CO2, which you later breathe out o Diaphragm – the muscle membrane that helps you breathe in and out by changing the pressure in your chest cavity  How the Respiratory System Works with Other Body Systems: o Integumentary System – gas exchange in lungs provides oxygen to skin and rids body of carbon dioxide from skin; skin helps to protect respiratory organs and helps regulate body temperature o Skeletal System – gas exchange in lungs provides oxygen and rids body of CO2; rib cage protects lungs and assists breathing: bones provide attachment sites for muscles involved in breathing o Cardiovascular System – gas exchange in lungs rids body of CO2, helping to regulate the pH of blood; breathing aids venous return; blood vessels transport gasses to and from lungs; blood services respiratory organs o Lymphatic System/Immunity – tonsils and adenoids occur along respiratory tract; breathing aids lymph flow; lungs carry out gas exchange; lymphatic vessels pick up excess tissue fluid; immune system protects against respiratory tract lung infections o Muscular System – lungs provide oxygen for contracting muscles and rid the body of CO2 from contracting muscles; muscle contraction assists breathing; physical exercise increases respiratory capacity o Nervous System – lungs provide oxygen for neurons and rid the body of CO2 produced by neurons; respiratory centers in brain regulate breathing rate o Endocrine System – gas exchange in lungs provides oxygen and rid body of carbon dioxide; epinephrine promotes ventilation by dilating bronchioles; growth factors control production of red blood cells that carry oxygen o Digestive System – gas exchange in lungs provides oxygen to the digestive system tract and excretes CO2 from the digestive tract; breathing is possible through the mouth because digestive tract and respiratory tract share the pharynx o Urinary System – lungs excrete CO2, provide oxygen, and convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II, leading to kidney regulation; kidneys compensate for water lost through respiratory tract; work with lungs to maintain blood pH o Reproductive System – gas exchange increases during sexual activity; sexual activity increasing breathing; pregnancy causes breathing rate and vital capacity to increase


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