Chapter 13: Corrections
Chapter 13: Corrections Criminal Justice 101
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Criminal Justice 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 101 at Ball State University taught by Jennifer Christman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American Criminal Justice System in Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Chapter 13 Corrections Development of Corrections Corrections: programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of people accused or convicted of criminal offenses Examples of punishment o Prisons o Jails o Probation o Halfway houses o Education and work release programs Invention of the Penitentiary Penitentiary Act of 1779 (John Howard) o A secure and sanitary building for offenders to seek “penance” o Inspection to ensure that offenders followed the rules o Abolition of the fees charges offenders for their food o At reformatory regime o New realized in England Pennsylvania Prison System Characteristics Separate confinement to reflect misdeeds No communication of any kind was allowed Solitary labor, bible reading, and reflection were the keys to the moral rehabilitation All activities were conducted in cells Walnut St. Jail The New York (Albany) System Congregate system Prisoners were held in isolation at night, but worked with other prisoners during the day Prisoners worked in silence Contract labor system: inmates contracted out as labor source, originally inmates not paid at all Prisons in the South and West Lease System o Inmates are leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their labor o Many were slaves – worked to death on the railroad and the cotton fields in the south o In the west, most prisons were federally run until the west was no longer “wild” Lease system used in west, then replaced by state systems once territories were settled Reformatory Movement National Prison Association meeting – Cincinnati OH – 1870 o Declaration of principles Release as reward for reformation Indeterminate sentencing connection w/ parole o Elmira Reformatory – 1876 – Marks System Enter at grade 2 Time, good behavior – move to grade 1 (eligible for release) Lack of progress, rule violations – demotion to level 3 Principles of Early Female Prison Reform Women’s Prison Association formed in New York in 1844 3 principles guided prison reform o Separation of men and women prisoners o Provision of care in keeping with the needs of women o Management of women’s prisons by female staff First women’s prison – in Indiana Rehabilitation “Medical” Model Implemented by progressives who pursued two main strategies: o Improving conditions in social environments that seemed to be the breeding grounds of crime o Rehabilitating individual offenders through individualized treatments: intermediate sentences – must earn release o Rooted in the early Reformatory Movement – 1876 Elmira, NY o Discredited in the 1970’s, the model failed to achieve its goals The Community Model Developed from the civil rights movement 1967 the President’s Commission of Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice o Purpose of corrections should be to reintegrate the offender into the community This model dominated until the late 1970’s Main goal – keep the offender connected to the community and his/her family Crime Control Model Critique on rehabilitation failures led to emphasis on crime control – switch implemented in early 1980’s Focus on: o Punitive measures o Longer sentences, especially violent offenders o Get tough on crime policies o Determinate sentences grounded in retribution, deterrence and incapacitation Federal Prison System Federal Bureau of Prisons: 114 prisons 218,000 inmates; 26% are from other countries Five different security levels o 1 is minimum security campus, 5 “supermax” prisons Population contains fewer violent offenders than state prisons o Drug offenses make up about 47% o Noteworthy population of white-collar criminals State Prisons Systems Administration falls under the executive branch of government States very considerably in the number, size, type, and location of correctional facilities For men, institutions are usually classified by level of security o Maximum o Medium o Minimum Indiana Minimum – level 1: 6 facilities (campus like – more freedom of movement) Medium – level 2-3: facilities (fences, dorms, or pods) Maximum – level 4: 4 facilities (walls, fencing, razor wire, more isolated) Intake facilities: decide where to place prisoners o Rockville (women) o RDC (men) Super Maximum Security Prisons 40 states have supermax prisons House most dangerous, violent, predatory criminals Extra tight security and isolated conditions are common Critics claim violations of United Nations standards for the treatment of inmates