PSYC 3330 Week Twelve Notes
PSYC 3330 Week Twelve Notes 3330
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
2. Semantic Priming Effect (lower RT to ‘related’ items) - works best for prototypes (prototypes is the average or typical instance of a category) . & typical/average category members. You would make quicker judgements about a grape if you had just seen the word fruit rather than the word spoon The word fruit primes you You can also give the name of another fruit, not just the category “fruit”, but this works better if it’s a typical fruit, such as apple, rather than mango 3. Induction (judgment of shared properties) – people often predict that all instances will have a property if a typical instance does. Based on what you know about what thing, you tend to think that other related things will share that property You’re more likely to think other fruits share traits with apples than with mangoes You’re more likely to think other birds will contract a disease from a common bird like a sparrow than an unusual one like an ostrich Rips (1975) – Ss read a story about an island with 8 animal species: sparrows, robins, eagles, hawks, ducks, geese, ostriches, bats - Told 1 species had a highly contagious disease, then asked to estimate % of other animals that would get the disease. -Typical, but not atypical, species thought to ________________________________ 4. Pseudo-memory (for unseen prototypes) Shows the tendency for people to pull together a bunch of different things that appear to belong to the same group Exposure to many instances can lead to false memory for an unseen underlying prototype People often think they’ve seen instant that they didn’t, but that fits Confidence for this may exceed that for previously viewed items So an prototype that is really average, people might assume they’ve seen it among the others when it wasn’t there · Exposure to many instances can àfalse memory for _________________ · confidence may exceed that for items that were previously seen IV. Network models - concepts are formed by a network of interconnections. Their meaning depends on their interconnections. (see text p. 263ff.) LOOK BACK AT THIS IN CHAPTER ONE This is the primary way people think about how we store information We have physical network of interconnections = neurons These linkages are how we learn, remember, forget things, etc…. Concepts are formed by a network of interconnections If you activate one piece of the network, it’ll affect other places o Spread of activation o The effects of this include priming Contemporary network models: concepts are stored in a net-like configuration of interconnected nodes o The nodes are where things come together and where we might put together connections o Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP, Neural network, connectionist) models (shit ton of names) Information is stored as a network of linked nodes (neuron like units) These connections vary in weight, determining how much activation one unit passes on to another Given sufficient activation, a node will excite and/or inhibit connected nodes There are three main properties: graceful degradation, Graceful degradation: errors or missing info, do not lead to complete failures (e.g. tip of the tongue phenomena) This does not mean you’re at a complete loss where you know nothing (you just may forget a couple things) Retrieval from Incomplete Information: if a set of features if sufficient to uniquely characterize and “item” it will activate that node Default Assignment: educated guesses, about a specific member of a category (if we know most of them are single, we can make a guess that Ralph is single) Your search through memory is parallel (you look at many hints while you try and make your guess, you don’t forget the earlier hints and move on) You can reach the right answer even with incorrect information (if one of the hints doesn’t fit, you can still make an educated guess based on the other hints) Some hints are more effective than others o PDP models imply reconstructive memory Interconnections à spread of activation effects including semantic priming Contemporary Network Models - concepts are stored in a net-like configuration of interconnected nodes. A. ACT-R ( Anderson) – not covered on exam B. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP; neural network; Connectionist) models – information is stored as a network of interconnected nodes (neuron-like units); these connections vary in weight, determining how much activation one unit passes on to another. Given sufficient activation, a node will excite &/or inhibit connected nodes. (see text p. 266ff.) 3 important properties: 1. Graceful degradation : errors or missing info. do not lead to complete failures. 2. Retrieval from incomplete information – if a set of features is sufficient to uniquely characterize an “item” it will _________________. 3. Allows default assignment (educated guessing) about a specific member of a category Review Theory of subtractive abstraction: rely on defining features Probabilistic view: rely on family resemblance to a typical or average instance (prototype( or to one of multiple exemplars (Exemplar approaches) Network models: spread of activation and predictive of properties of human cognition Psycholinguistics The study of language as it is learned and used What is language (language is often different when we’re discussing humans vs. animals) Language is a shared symbolic system for communication We’re maybe using this word “language” way to loosely to describe to how unique humans are So maybe we should say lots of species have communication systems but only humans have language Non-human languages o Bees “dance” (they have particular ways of moving about that signal various things to other bees) o Restricted context: animals have a very limited context in how they communicate and what they communicate about E.g. some monkeys have distinct calls associated with at least five types of predators. This is impressive, but humans can refer to almost anything, real or imaginary, past, present or future o Communication is sort of predictable with a given context You could show monkeys a cardboard cutout of a tiger and predict the sound monkeys will make o Non-humans so not (naturally) combine sounds or gestures into sentences But dolphins and apes can be trained to do so But this is still not impressive compared to humans True (human) language criteria (we have all these abilities while other species may only have a few or none) o Semanticity: language conveys meaning o Generative (productive): we can take a limited number of sounds and combine them together to generate an infinite number of words or sentences o Displacement: can convey information about another time and/or place Honey bees can do this by dancing o Structure (language rules): you don’t need a lot of structure if you only have a few calls or signals o Arbitrariness: sounds and written symbols are both arbitrary in meaning exceptions are some sounds with emotions There’s no reason “giraffe” is the words for giraffes and not zebras Spoken Language Components of Spoken Language Phonemes: smallest units of sound that affect meaning o E.g. school vs. fool (that initial sound or phoneme makes a big difference) o Don’t confuse these with letters o There are roughly forty four phonemes in the english language o These language sounds produce categorical perception o Continuous vs. categorical perception? o Phonemes usually affect meaning but don’t have meaning (I is an example of a phoneme with meaning) Morphemes: smallest meaningful units Grammar: rules of language o Syntax: rules for combining morphemes (ordering) Different from one language to another o Semantics: rules of meaning Mary kicked John (we know the meaning of this statement) o Pragmatics: social rules of language use E.g. don’t monopolize the conversation o What must an acceptable set of rules accomplish? Generate acceptable sentences Reject unacceptable sentences Explain why different sentences or phrases can have the same meaning Explain ambiguity Structural ambiguity: as in “the rat is too hot to eat” could have two meanings Lexical ambiguity: someone asked W.C. Fields, “do you believe in clubs for young people?” And he said “only when kindness fails” o They function so that we can understand the meaning of the words someone says o Transformational Grammar was studied by Chomsky Pointed out that we’ve got two different levels to language: surface structure and deep structure Surface structures: actual words or phrases or sentences we’re talking about Deep structure: underlying meaning We can have a variety of surface structures but just one deep structure Grammar allows us to comprehend language from SS to DS This can be complicated by ambiguity Grammar allows us to produce language from DS to SS This can be complicated because there’s often many ways to go from DS to SS o It is common for us to know proper grammar but still say or write improperly (our underlying ability is greater than what we actually see in behavior) o The speaker’s knowledge of grammar is often tacit rather than explicit o Language comprehension is adversely affected by: Multiple negatives can get really confusing Nested phrases: going on a tangent in the middle of a sentence Passive voice (“Sam was kissed by Mary” bs. “Mary kissed Sam”) Ambiguity Relationship of Thought and Language (three theories) Language is required for thought This is obviously wrong Watson’s Behaviorism said thinking was subvocal speech There is some supporting evidence that thinking is often subvocal speech o Deaf people may sign during their sleep This is refuted by: o Animals who do not have language can still solve problems (Kohler had apes who had to figure out how to get food) o Humans who have no language skills o Full paralysis (via the drug curare) allows perception, memory, speech comprehension, and thinking about events o Even with our massive language skills, we can think in abstract (language-free) thought and memory Memory for gist (but not exact words) of sentences “What would obama look like with a goatee?” Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis One’s native language determines or influences the way the world is perceived, organized, and understood Sometimes there is no good translation between languages Different languages emphasize different aspects of the world o E.g. eskimos have 100 different words for snow, so does this mean they have an advantage at seeing different types of snow? Different languages can have very different color naming o English has eleven basic, frequently used words for colors but some people in New Guinea only have two basic words for colors and a Brazil tribe that has no fixed words for colors o So are these people more impaired at seeing different colors? It has generally be found that this hypothesis is wrong The tribe in New Guinea doesn’t seem to have any different color perception/cognition Studies have found cross-linguistic difference in subjective color similarity judgements and color confusability o If two colors are called by the same name in a language, speakers of that language will judge the two colors to be more similar and will be more likely to confuse them in memory compared with people whose language assigns different names to the two colors There is no good evidence to support strong linguistic relativity: language limitations do not prevent people from perceiving or learning major differences Weaker but interesting effects do exist Language depends on cognition This is really obviously true Thought precedes language o This has become more and more obvious when you study infants Highly differentiated items for a category occur only if the category is highly significant for users (e.g. snow) Language to reflect the evolution of cognition Speech Production and Perception Speech Sounds o Production mechanisms (e.g. voiced or voiceless) Our vocal cords make noises but we can make noises without them Every phoneme has a unique manner or production o Speech Spectrograms If we want to see what people say or what sounds they’re making, it is helpful to convert this into a visual thing and a speech spectrogram does this SS are visual displays of speech acoustics Reveal formants (bands of speech energy) Reveals that there are different patterns of sound Speech perception is complex o Our brain is somehow identifying phonemes we’re hearing while recognizing their order even though every speaker we hear sounds different o We can know what mood somebody is in by how they say “hello” o How are we doing this? o We do not and cannot simply register a sequence of discrete phonemes Phonemes are seldom separated by pauses (they run together) Words are often not separated by periods of silence Word segmentation problem: sometimes people have trouble telling where one word ends so they might interpret two words as one You can see this on a speech spectrogram Being able to hear spaces between words reflects how well we know the language o Speech sounds are not discrete o Parallel transmission (coarticulation): temporal overlap in production of neighboring phonemes leads to phonemes cannot usually be segmented We often produce two sounds at the same time o Variability This is affected by age and sex, different dialects, mood, talking speed, etc… Phonemic Context Effect: phonemes are context sensitive; acoustics differ depending on surrounding phonemes The direction and form of formant transitions that give rise to the percept of the same consonant differ as a function of the vowel context in which the consonant occurs thus there is no simple one-to-one relationship between the sound (formant transitions) and the perceived consonant
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