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SOC 311 Notes #9

by: Emily Wagner

SOC 311 Notes #9 Soc 311

Emily Wagner
Drugs and society

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Drugs and society
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Wagner on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 311 at University at Buffalo taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Drugs and society in Sociology at University at Buffalo.


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Date Created: 11/19/15
SOC 311 Drugs and Society Kristen ConnoHy Notes from 11915111315 Amphetamines rst synthesized in a laboratory 1887 Medical Uses for Amphetamines Treats narcolepsy depression alcoholism obesity fatigue and more Recreational Use Feelings of euphoria 19405505 increasingly used for illegal purposes Common Street Names speed uppers When People Take Amphetamines Tablet form 2510mg o Heightened competence in motor skills 0 Increased alertness energy and heartbeat 0 Increased con dence 0 Inhibition of appetite 0 Blood vessels constrict Use Today 19505705 diet pill but has bad side effects 0 Today few medical uses Amphetamine Psychosis violence disordered paranoid Withdrawal Symptoms Psychological not physical 0 Severe depression 0 Anxiety 0 Fatigue 0 Sleeplessness o Nightmares Methamphetamines More potent version because of the route of administration 0 Injected snorted or smoked o Methedrine form of methamphetamine 0 Use peaked in 19667 0 Many meth users switched between meth stimulant and heroin depressant 0 Schedule II drug Can cause users to go day without sleep followed by long periods of sleep Very prevalent in Hawaii west coast and midwest Meth Labs 0 Need to be far away from society in the middle of nowhere o Smells and ingredients are extremely strong can lead to res or explosions 0 Can contain ingredients such as acetone engine starter uid matches drain cleaners battery acid Meth Abuse 0 2002 13 states had admission rates to treatment of methamphetamine abuse greater than 100 per 100000 people Toxic Waste 0 Each pound of meth produced yields 6 more pounds of toxic waste Cocaine and Crack 0 Cocaine one of the two major psychoactive stimulants History of Cocaine Sigmund Freud was an early enthusiast of cocaine as an important medicinal drug 0 Then realized the strong dependence it can bring about Acute Effects 0 Powerful burst of energy and sense of wellbeing Causes an elevation in the sympathetic autonomic nervous system Chronic Effects Hallucinations deep depression 0 Cocaine psychosis Physical deterioration of nasal membranes Medical Use 0 Local anesthetic short term How Cocaine Works in the Brain 0 Cocaine blocks the reuptake of receptors sensitive to dopamine and norepinephrine Activity level of these neurotransmitters in the brain is enhanced PresentDay Cocaine Use 0 Attitudes toward cocaine have changed dramatically since 19705805 Saw the dangers and addiction 0 People began stealing to help the addiction Abuse 0 Mid 19805 inexpensive abuse became a major social issue Patterns of Abuse 0 37 million Americans ages 12 used cocaine sometime in their life 39 million people used it in the past year 0 140 million people used it in the past month DAWN 505000 cocaine related ED visits Treatment Programs Inpatient outpatient or use of both types of programs Relapse is a continual concern for recovering cocaine users Crack Crystalline and impure form of cocaine smoked Made by cooking cocaine with baking soda 0 Not freebase 0 Difference from cocaine route of administration and concentration Became popular around 1985 Poverty article 0 Can result from several generations of struggle against harsh conditions structural impediments Crack as a Dominant Force 0 Many crack users centered their lives around the use of crack 0 Crack markets in cities served the needs of users 247 0 Led to increased violence in cities Heroin and Narcotics Opioids can be divided into four categories 1 3 natural compounds that can be extracted from opium morphine codeine and thebaine 2 Derivative compounds are created by making speci c changes in the chemical composition of morphine 3 Derivative compounds are created by making speci c changes in the chemical composition of codeine or thebaine 4 Compounds synthesized in the lab Opium in History 0 Over 5000 years of use 0 Dates back to early 3rd century BC Galen Greek doctor recommended opium for all ailments The Opium Wars 0 China vs European countries and US 0 China only used opium for medicinal uses Opium in Britain and the US 0 Middle to upper class used for medicine a Working to lower classes used to get high 0 Therefore drug laws came about Morphine and Advent of Heroin o Morphine principle active ingredient in opium Heroin was introduced by the Bayer Company Opioids in American Society 0 Abuse potential of morphine not recognized until the start of the 20th century 0 1990 250000 people were opioiddependent in US asylums Opioid use and Heroin Abuse After 1914 0 Harrison Act 1914 drove heroin underground 0 Growing association with criminal life Heroin became the perfect Black Market drug Heroin Abuse 0 19605705 associated with African Americans after WWII 0 Soldiers returned to American with heroin addictions Heroin and Other Opioids 0 Black Tar potent form of heroin Heroin use uctuates but is on the rise because prescription pain killers are so restricted Effects on Mind and Body Euphoria analgesia gastrointestinal slowing respiratory depression How Opioids Work in the Brain 0 Nalaxone pure antagonist for morphine and other opioid drugs Endorphins Patterns of Heroin Abuse 0 IV injection mainlining or shooting are most common ways to administer the drug 0 Oral administration leads to poor absorption Tolerance and Withdrawal Symptoms Chronic heroin abuse leads to tolerance o Withdrawal effects craving physical conditions fever dehydration Heroin doses are unpredictable Treatment for Heroin Abuse 0 Methadone Maintenance Programs 0 Focus on physiological needs of the abuser 0 Slowly takes them off the drug 0 Multimodality treatment programs combination of detoxi cation psychotherapy and group support Medical Uses of Opioid Drugs 0 Pain treatment Suppression of coughing Prescription Pain Medication Misuse and Abuse 0 OxyContin Vicodin and Percocet o Vicodin and Percocet have a longer history of abuse


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