Week 13: Viruses & Metabolism and Enzymes I
Week 13: Viruses & Metabolism and Enzymes I Bio 107
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Johnson on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/19/15
Viruses Viruses 0 v Obligate intracellular parasites Rely completely on taking over other cells they re not living organisms 339 Consist of DNA RNA genome and a protein coat 339 Discovery 19th century Study of tobacco mosaic disease Caused by something smaller than bacteria Tobacco mosaic virus was crystallized in 1935 Viral Genomes 339 DNA single or double stranded 339 RNA single or double stranded 0 v Linear circular Viral Capsid 339 Protein shell that protects the genome Made of capsomere proteins 0 v Diverse in shape and size Viral Envelope 0 v Not possessed by every virus 0 v Membrane around capsid that s derived from the host s membrane 0 v Contains viral glycoprotein Aids in recognition and infection of new host cells Host Range 339 Specific species and tissues a virus can infect due to cell surface molecules and receptors Range is determined by viral surface proteins and host surface proteins 0 v Broad narrow Broad host range can result in a virus being more Widespread spreading faster than a narrow host range Virus Reproductive Cycles 339 Double stranded DNA viruses Virus enters host cell and the coat is removed DNA is replicated and capsid proteins are manufactures New viral cells are self assembled New cells are released Host doesn t rupture and usually all normal cell functions continue Host machinery is used to Replicate viral genome Express viral proteins 0 v Bacteriophages Lytic cycle Gets rid of host DNA Uses the nucleobases for viral DNA Prevents allocation to host resources to host functions Same process as above only phage lyses the host cell when released Bacteria can try to block infection by cutting phage DNA upon entry using restriction enzymes Lysogenic cycle Viral DNA is incorporated into the host s DNA Doesn t destroy the host cell but can become lytic later on Metabolism and Enzymes I Metabolism v The totality of an organism s chemical reactions v Accounts for both energy and matter Inputs and outputs v Two types of pathways Catabolic release energy and matter Anabolic store energy and matter v Processes can be reversed but the two processes forward and reverse aren t mirror images of one another Must be able to regulate separately Carbohydrates 0 v Primary unit is CH20 0 v Monosaccharides One monomer Common groups Hydroxyl Carbonyl Aldose Ketose Classified by the length of the carbon backbone Examples Ribose Glucose Galactose Fructose 0 v Disaccharides Two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond Examples Maltose glucose glucose Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose glucose galactose 339 Polysaccharides Multiple monosaccharides joined with glycosidic bonds Two major types Storage Starch Energy storage for plants glucose source for herbivores Cork screw formation Can be branched Structure Cellulose Component of plant cell walls Straight polymer of glucose can create sheets Molecules can hydrogen bond Can form microfibrils