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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
3/28 Chapter 8…. • 4) Context Extraneous Variables: created from the procedures of the study and the context of the research setting o 1-‐ participants get to pick the study they participate in o 2-‐experimenter gets to pick the participants that will be participating in the study ▯ make sure you are choosing people you do not know Chapter 9: Between Subjects Design • Experimental Design: structure of your experiment; how is going to be set up? What measures are going to be used? • Some hypothesis can be multiple possible research design • What to consider when picking a research/ experimental design? o Hypothesis (specific): directional, non-‐directional, true experimental? o Prior research: look at similar studies to build our hypothesis o Practical limitation/problems o Pay attention to the kind of information you want to get out of this study o The number of independent variables that you have within your study o The number of treatment condition you will be using= # of levels o Same participants for each treatment conditions or different participants for each treatment conditions • Different participants represented in each of your treatment conditions and then making a comparison of the behavior within your different treatment groups; seeing how each level or treatment affects participants differently • Recruit/Select Sample: the more the sample represents the larger population the higher the external validity will be…the smaller the sample is the lower the probability will be that you will be able to generalize the results • Random selection/ random sampling: every person in the population will have an equal chance of being selected to be apart of the sample • Aim to get the largest sample as possible; the larger the more you will be able to account for individual differences; more powerful the statistics will become (every true experiment has to use random assignment) • Inferences of population through sample (IV▯ DV) • Effect size= number of participants needed to see the different/ effect of the independent variable between treatment conditions • Power charts: verify the specific number you need per treatment condition o 3 types of effect sizes: ▯ weak/ small ▯ moderate ▯ large/strong (GOAL) BETWEEN-‐ SUBJECTS DESIGN 1 IV: Two Groups Designs= One -‐IV Two -‐treatment conditions= 2 levels of IV Two-‐Group Designs (types) 1-‐ Two-‐Independent Groups a. Experimental Group-‐Control Group Design b. Two-‐Experimental-‐Groups Design 2-‐ Two-‐Matching(ed)-‐ Groups • Two-Independent Groups: each participant is going to be placed in one of two treatment conditions through the use of random assignment. • Experimental Group-Control Group Design: 2 treatment conditions; o 1 is referred to as the experimental condition (experimental group) this is the treatment condition where we are applying the value of the independent variable; they are receiving the manipulation o 2 is called the control condition/ control group; “no treatment condition”; they serve as the comparison method; taking the two treatment conditions and seeing the difference between the results of the groups o want to be as similar as we can so there aren’t confounding results • Two-Experimental-Groups-Design: looking at two different levels of the independent variable; looking at the difference in behavior when participants are receiving two different levels of the independent variable • When do we use the 2-‐Independent Groups design? o Only if you have one independent variable being tested in your hypothesis o Only if you can test two treatment condition with independent variable o Have to be able to use random assignment • Two Matches Groups Design: o 2 groups o Researcher is assigning participants to groups by matching them on a characteristic that probably will affect the dependent variable o controlling extraneous variable that we think may have an effect on the dependent variable o 3 Matching Techniques: measuring participants before study begins on this characteristic and random assignment to assign 1 participant to one group and the other to the second group ▯ 1) precision matching: matching on identical scores. Ex. self esteem… ▯ 2) Range matching: pick a predetermined range that you will match your participants within ▯ 3) Rank order matching: ranking all my scores and the participant with the adjacent score will get matched together o When to use matching? ▯ Small number of participants= greater chance random assignment will produce dissimilar groups ▯ Compare similar participants tested under different treatment conditions • More than two treatment conditions? = Multiple groups design o One independent variable; more than two levels of IV o Each participant is assigned to one treatment condition (control) o Multiple-Independent-Groups-Design: assigning participants based on random assignment • Random Numbers Table (used to ensure that random assignment is present)