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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino

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Week 8 notes. Chapter 8 & 9.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Brianna Stinebaugh
Class Notes
Between Subjects Design
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
3/28   Chapter  8….   • 4)  Context  Extraneous  Variables:  created  from  the  procedures  of  the  study   and  the  context  of  the  research  setting   o 1-­‐  participants  get  to  pick  the  study  they  participate  in   o 2-­‐experimenter  gets  to  pick  the  participants  that  will  be  participating   in  the  study  ▯  make  sure  you  are  choosing  people  you  do  not  know   Chapter  9:  Between  Subjects  Design   • Experimental  Design:  structure  of  your  experiment;  how  is  going  to  be  set   up?  What  measures  are  going  to  be  used?   • Some  hypothesis  can  be  multiple  possible  research  design   • What  to  consider  when  picking  a  research/  experimental  design?     o Hypothesis  (specific):  directional,  non-­‐directional,  true  experimental?   o Prior  research:  look  at  similar  studies  to  build  our  hypothesis   o Practical  limitation/problems   o Pay  attention  to  the  kind  of  information  you  want  to  get  out  of  this   study   o The  number  of  independent  variables  that  you  have  within  your  study   o The  number  of  treatment  condition  you  will  be  using=  #  of  levels   o Same  participants  for  each  treatment  conditions  or  different   participants  for  each  treatment  conditions   • Different  participants  represented  in  each  of  your  treatment  conditions  and   then  making  a  comparison  of  the  behavior  within  your  different  treatment   groups;  seeing  how  each  level  or  treatment  affects  participants  differently   • Recruit/Select  Sample:  the  more  the  sample  represents  the  larger   population  the  higher  the  external  validity  will  be…the  smaller  the  sample  is   the  lower  the  probability  will  be  that  you  will  be  able  to  generalize  the   results   • Random  selection/  random  sampling:    every  person  in  the  population  will   have  an  equal  chance  of  being  selected  to  be  apart  of  the  sample   • Aim  to  get  the  largest  sample  as  possible;  the  larger  the  more  you  will  be  able   to  account  for  individual  differences;  more  powerful  the  statistics  will   become  (every  true  experiment  has  to  use  random  assignment)   • Inferences  of  population  through  sample  (IV▯  DV)   • Effect  size=  number  of  participants  needed  to  see  the  different/  effect  of  the   independent  variable  between  treatment  conditions   • Power  charts:  verify  the  specific  number  you  need  per  treatment  condition   o 3  types  of  effect  sizes:   ▯ weak/  small   ▯ moderate   ▯ large/strong  (GOAL)     BETWEEN-­‐  SUBJECTS  DESIGN     1  IV:  Two  Groups  Designs=     One     -­‐IV     Two     -­‐treatment  conditions=  2  levels  of  IV   Two-­‐Group  Designs  (types)   1-­‐ Two-­‐Independent  Groups   a. Experimental  Group-­‐Control  Group  Design   b. Two-­‐Experimental-­‐Groups  Design   2-­‐ Two-­‐Matching(ed)-­‐  Groups     • Two-­Independent  Groups:  each  participant  is  going  to  be  placed  in  one  of   two  treatment  conditions  through  the  use  of  random  assignment.   • Experimental  Group-­Control  Group  Design:  2  treatment  conditions;     o 1  is  referred  to  as  the  experimental  condition  (experimental  group)   this  is  the  treatment  condition  where  we  are  applying  the  value  of  the   independent  variable;  they  are  receiving  the  manipulation   o 2  is  called  the  control  condition/  control  group;  “no  treatment   condition”;  they  serve  as  the  comparison  method;  taking  the  two   treatment  conditions  and  seeing  the  difference  between  the  results  of   the  groups   o want  to  be  as  similar  as  we  can  so  there  aren’t  confounding  results   • Two-­Experimental-­Groups-­Design:  looking  at  two  different  levels  of  the   independent  variable;  looking  at  the  difference  in  behavior  when   participants  are  receiving  two  different  levels  of  the  independent  variable   • When  do  we  use  the  2-­‐Independent  Groups  design?   o Only  if  you  have  one  independent  variable  being  tested  in  your   hypothesis   o Only  if  you  can  test  two  treatment  condition  with  independent   variable   o Have  to  be  able  to  use  random  assignment   • Two  Matches  Groups  Design:     o 2  groups   o Researcher  is  assigning  participants  to  groups  by  matching  them  on  a   characteristic  that  probably  will  affect  the  dependent  variable   o controlling  extraneous  variable  that  we  think  may  have  an  effect  on   the  dependent  variable   o 3  Matching  Techniques:  measuring  participants  before  study  begins   on  this  characteristic  and  random  assignment  to  assign  1  participant   to  one  group  and  the  other  to  the  second  group   ▯ 1)  precision  matching:  matching  on  identical  scores.  Ex.  self   esteem…   ▯ 2)  Range  matching:  pick  a  predetermined  range  that  you  will   match  your  participants  within   ▯ 3)  Rank  order  matching:  ranking  all  my  scores  and  the   participant  with  the  adjacent  score  will  get  matched  together   o When  to  use  matching?   ▯ Small  number  of  participants=  greater  chance  random   assignment  will  produce  dissimilar  groups   ▯ Compare  similar  participants  tested  under  different  treatment   conditions     • More  than  two  treatment  conditions?  =  Multiple  groups  design   o One  independent  variable;  more  than  two  levels  of  IV   o Each  participant  is  assigned  to  one  treatment  condition  (control)   o Multiple-­Independent-­Groups-­Design:  assigning  participants  based   on  random  assignment   • Random  Numbers  Table  (used  to  ensure  that  random  assignment  is   present)    


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