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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino

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About this Document

Week 8 notes. Human trafficking and history.
Women and Crime
Marion Cockey
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Women and Crime

Popular in Criminal Justice

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRMJ348 at Towson University taught by Marion Cockey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in Criminal Justice at Towson University.


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Date Created: 03/31/16
3/29   • Women’s  boroughs   o Pay  raises  weren’t  considered   • White  male  working  class  culture   • 40s  &  50s….finger  print  work  in  the  lab  was  mostly  done  by  women;  also  did   undercover  work  (prostitute);  secretaries   • 1%  of  all  officers  were  female  (as  of  1960)   • Child  saver  mentality  was  the  role  that  many  of  women  had  to  do   • 1961  NYC  had  passed  a  rule  that  in  NYC  any  police  officer  could  apply  for   promotions;  notice  for  the  promotion  had  to  be  public;  they  put  them  in  the   men’s  locker  room  so  it  was  not  in  the  general  public   o rabbi:  helps  younger  officer’s  develop;  helped  to  situate  women  in  a   more  positive  way  within  the  police  department   o woman  sued  for  the  notice  to  be  made  public  and  won   o 1961  Felicia  Schpritzer  first  officer  to  pass  the  sergeants  test  and   became  the  first  female  sergeant   • 1968  Omnibus  Crime  Control  and  Safe  Streets  Act:  precursor  to  the  war  on   drugs;  control  crime  and  put  it  at  a  tolerable  level;  crime  control?  Crime   prevention  &  elimination;  criminal  justice  as  a  notion  did  not  exist  until  this   law;     o police  didn’t  know  how  to  communicate  with  non  police…would  learn   through  education   o a  space  suggested  that,  if  they  receive  a  college  education,  they  would   be  reimbursed  and  receive  a  pay  grade  and  often  times  be  promoted   o whereas  women  have  always  had  the  requirement  of  a  college   education   o if  you  wanted  federal  grants  everything  had  to  be  written  in  terms  of   measurable  goals  and  objectives  (1/5  yr  plan)   o block  grants  given  to  each  state,  that  were  based  of  population   (smaller  states  got  smaller  grants),  distributed  equally  among  police,   courts  and  corrections  (C.J.  system)   3/31   • Human  Trafficking   • 2  concepts!  Sex  Trafficking/  human  trafficking   • Human  Trafficking:  refers  to  anyone  who  is  trafficked  to  benefit  someone   else;  taken  by  force  or  offers  of  benefits;  anyone  who  is  trafficked  for  sexual,   labor,  porn,  service,  etc;  includes  sex  trafficking   • Sex  Trafficking:  specifically  induced  by  force  or  coercion;  someone  is  forced   to  perform  sexual  acts;  under  18  can  be  “saved”   • Most  profitable;  now  making  more  money  than  sales  of  drugs  or  weapons   • Doesn’t  require  much  effort   • Not  traditionally  organized  crime  so  we  aren’t  going  to  call  it  organized   crime…   • 2000  passed  the  Trafficking  Victims  Protection  Act:  this  act  essentially  made   trafficking  a  federal  crime   o the  individual  who  is  trafficked  must  be  involved  in  commercial  sex   acts  (prostitution)   o traffickers  are  recognized  to  use  psychological  and  physical  means  to   traffic  someone   • how  does  trafficking  happen?   o Runaways  (result  of  abuse  at  home)   o Picked  up  on  the  street   o Population  of  individuals  who  are  there  for  the  victimization   o False  marriage  proposals,  promise  of  a  good  job  in  another  country,   being  sold  (family  members),  trafficking  recruitors   o Manipulating  meals   o Confinement   o Family  violation  (you  have  a  little  sister?  A  little  brother?)   o Forced  drug  use   o Tremendous  health  risk  associated  with  trafficking  in  general   ▯ Pregnancy  (miscarriages,  forced  abortions)   ▯ Physical  damage  (violent  rape,  TBI,  memory  loss)   ▯ STD’s,  STI’s,  hepatitis   ▯ Death   • Victims  typically  experience  out  of  body  experiences  when  they  are  raped;   the  mind  and  the  body  are  in  disconnect;  don’t  associate  what  is  happening   to  themselves   • Suicide  is  not  an  uncommon  outcome   • Self  hatred   • 32  million  people  are  trafficked    


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