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Phylogenetics and Homology

by: Notetaker

Phylogenetics and Homology BIOL 01104 5 (Mcardle, BIOLOGY 1: DIVERS/EVOL/ ADAP

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Sorry that it's been a while since i've posted notes. These are what I have of the notes on phylogenetics and homology. There is no cladogram for the graph, but it is not needed to understand it. T...
Daniel McArdle
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 01104 5 (Mcardle, BIOLOGY 1: DIVERS/EVOL/ ADAP at Rowan University taught by Daniel McArdle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see BIOLOGY 1: DIVERS/EVOL/ ADAP in Biological Sciences at Rowan University.

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Date Created: 11/19/15
▯ Phylogenetics  Cladograms- illustrates evolutionary relationships  It shows who is more closely related to whom Ancestors are hypothetical until otherwise noted ▯ Phylogenetic systematics  Emphasizes monophyletic groups o Monophyletic groups include all descendants of a single common ancestor. o All taxa in classification must be monophyletic  Evidence that a group is monophyletic comes from shared derived characters ▯ Cladograms are hypotheses  For any given number of taxa, there are a certain number of possible cladograms, but only one can be true. ▯ ▯ Characters  A character is any trait of an organism o Anatomy, proteins, dna, physiology, behavior, etc.  Characters often vary among taxa o Mammals have fur; birds do not. o Birds have feathers, mammals do not  If one condition evolved from the other, then the first is called derived and the second ancestral. o No fur: ancestral; heaving fur: derived o No feathers: ancestral; Having feathers: derived  Share derived characters are the evidence used to support a particular cladogram  Shared ancestral characteristics don’t tell us anything about relationships. ▯ How do we know what’s ancestral and what’s derived?  Typically, this is done using an outgroup, which is a taxon ▯ ▯ ▯ Mapping characters onto trees  We can trace the evolution of a character on a given tree by mapping the character onto the tree. ▯ ▯ Different cladograms imply different character evolution ▯ ▯ The trees with the fewest number of character changes is the best supported hypothesis. ▯ ▯ Why do we judge the tree with the fewest changes as being the best supported?  Parsimony: the simplest explanation is most likely to be true. ▯ ▯ Analyze the following data matrix:  Treat the lancelet as the out group.  Draw all of the possible trees depicting the possible relationships among these taxa.  Map the characters onto each tree  Determine which trees fit the data best.  TAXON JAWS VERTEBRAE PAIRED POUCHE SKULL SEMICIRCULAR FINS D GILLS CANALS Lancelet Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 0 Hagfish Absent Absent Absent Present Presen 1 t Lamprey Absent Present Absent Present Presen 2 t Shark Presen Present Present Absent Presen 3 t t Goldfish Presen Present Present Absent Presen 3 t t Studies have suggested that hagfish and lampreys are more closely related to each other that to other vertebrates. Is this clade supported by these data? If it were supported, what would it imply regarding the evolution of vertebrae? ▯ ▯ ▯ HOMOLOGY ▯ Causes of similarities ▯ Homology= similarities inherited from a common ancestor ▯ Homoplasy= similarities in characteristics but no from a common ancestor ▯ ▯ Homologous structures may serve different purposes ▯ ▯ Convergence= homoplasy due to adaptation to similar environments ▯


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