Diversity I Notes Angiosperms
Diversity I Notes Angiosperms 210
Popular in Diversity of Life I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Foreign Language
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Thursday November 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
Reviews for Diversity I Notes Angiosperms
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/19/15
Diversity of Life I Week 12 11/17/15 Dovciak Angiosperms I – Pollination Biology The Private Life of Plants, Flowering, David Attenborough (1995) Hay fever – caused by pollen grains in grass flowers -pollen has huge variety in size and structure across plant species, used for fertilization Grasses are very successful, being found on every continent, and some stand up over 20’ tall Male pollen structures, stamens, bust out pollen wholesale, female is stigma Male and female sometimes join together in a single plant -petals act to entice the pollinators -male & female repro structures become fertile at different times to prevent self-fertilization Kangaroo plants have comb shape with an elongated stamen at the end. As honeysucker bird gets the nectar the stamen falls from the plant onto the bird, & fertilizes the next plant the bird visits -bees are attracted to blue part of color spectrum, but birds color vision is similar to that of humans; red color really entices them for a snack -also don’t have much smell to them since most birds don’t really have a sense of smell -stigma of some plans will reject their own pollen and only accept that from other flowers Columnea leaves have translucent red blotches on their undersides, look like stained glass, and used for advertising their smaller yellow flowers for the birds -require less energy to produce and maintain, have greater longevity, and still serve the same purpose as radiant flowers -bush mouse also a kind of pollinator, feeds on flowers with stems facing downward hidden under shrubs, and only opens at night -bats are also pollinators, even reptiles (giant gecko of New Zealand) Madagascar has plants unlike any others since splitting from Africa ~40MYA -lemurs pollinate traveler’s plants here and will pry apart tough leaves to get at nectar (need to hit 2+ to complete reproduction cycle); only a select few lemur species are nectar feeders Insects are the most economically efficient pollinators – BEES -having exclusive pollinator is advantageous so they don’t deliver pollen to the wrong species Ex. bee will vibrate at unique frequency to get stigma to open up and release pollen & nectar -hummingbird hawk moth has a very long tongue for getting at nectar and will brush the stamens -hoverfly has one of the longest “tongues” in the animal kingdom, feeds on iris flowers that have arrows pointing flies where to go to get at nectar; butterflies can curve their tongues -pollen can be costly to produce; orchids will parcel pollen in pollenia, provide pollinators with ‘landing site’ to get at nectar -species related to snapdragon has a bee pollinator with extra-long legs to get at nutritious oil; other bees, only males, use oil from another orchid as perfume to attract females -some will discharge their pollen when a trigger is set off -wasp females will lay eggs inside flower capsule of fig plants. Once they hatch they will mate and only the females will exit the flower and get pollen attached to them. They will then find a fig plant to feed and lay eggs in, and the cycle continues -little orchids will trick bee pollinators into thinking there is a bee there for mating -tinid wasps and orchids do the same, using perfume chemical nearly identical to males, and as he moves up and down he will carry off the pollen on his back 11/19/15 Angiosperm structure ~250,000 species, 400+ families, and ~90% found in Kingdom Plantae -inhabit large range of diverse habitats large variability in form and function Wolffia globosa, watermeal, Family Araceae – smallest plant, less than 2mm long Eucalyptus regnalus, Mountain ash, Family Myrtaceae – found in Tasmania, largest angiosperm; at ~100m tall, 2 ndtallest only to coastal redwood Titan arum – largest flowering structure, ~3m tall; convection flower Voodoo lily aka Devil’s Tongue -Plants with widest stems are angiosperms Ex. African baobab has a max stem diameter of ~15m -Some of the oldest living things are angiosperms; clones of some species were estimated to be over 10,000 years old (seed establishment from Holocene) Ex. Cresote bush (Larrea tridentate) Family Zygophyllaceae, Quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides, Family Salicaceae -Some angiosperms are carnivorous Venus fly trap (Dionaea), Pitcher-plant (Saracenia), Bladderwort (Utricularia) -Some angiosperms parasitize plants American mistletoe is semi-parasitic, Satalaceae aka Sandalwood, Indian pipe (Ericeae, Heath family) -Symbiotic N-fixation in angiosperms improve soil via symbiosis with microbes Legumes nitrogen fixation via symbiosis with Rhizobium Alnus, red alder N-fixation via symbiosis with Frankia -Some angiosperms don’t need soil -Tropical Bromeliads (epiphytes, airplants) Ex. Spanish moss -Most world biomes are dominated by angiosperms, save for taiga and temperate evergreen forest Ex. Tall grass prairies, hardwood forests -Vast majority of all crops are angiosperms Ex. Zea mays (corn) -Angiosperms are important protein source Legume family: peas, peanuts, beans -Flowering plants as construction material Bamboo – grass family, Teak - mint family (square-shaped stem) -Angiosperms important in medicine (drugs) -Morphine from opium poppy = pain reliever -Digitalin from foxglove = heart medication -Vinblastine from periwinkle = leukemia drug -Tubocurarine = Curare tree = muscle relaxant during surgery -Cultural and historical importance of angiosperms -Ex. Cyperus papyrus (papyrus sedge) Sedge family; sure beats stone tablets Main characteristics of angiosperms *apomorphies – novel evolutionary features -Flowers for reproduction -ovules enclosed in a carpel -double fertilization and formation of endosperm provides nutrition for developing embryo inside the seed -vessels composed of vessel elements for water transportation -sieve tubes made of sieve tube members for transportation of photosynthetic products from leaves to other plant parts Flowers – modified shoots with modified leaves Flower head = perianth -sepal and petal, which is more colorful, usually found on top of plant -Pistil (multiple carpels combine together) – stigma, style, ovary Receptacle (modified shoot) at base Pedicel (floral stalk) -Stamen (anther and filaments) Origin of carpels and pistil – megasporangia on leaves will fold and curve inward -closed carpel prevents self-fertilization, help maintain diversity -fertilized ovary develops into fruit seed dispersal (animals) -fusion of individual ovaries into a single structure 1 carpel, 1 pistil 3 carpels, 3 pistils 3 carpels, 1 pistel Insertion type and ovary position -hypogynous - receptacle and pedicel (shaded, superior ovary), -perigunous – hypanthium (floral cup, superior) -epigynous – hypanthium adnate to ovary (inferior) Fruit types -enlarged ovary wall -dehiscent vs. indehiscent -dry vs. fleshy Vascular tissues -xylem – transport water and minerals within plants -phloem – transport dissolved carbohydrates (sucrose, sugar) -Rapid diversification of angiosperms began during Cretaceous Period, and they have radiated more so ever since
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'