Developmental Notes Week 8
Developmental Notes Week 8 PSYC 3120
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
Chapter 14- Early Adulthood: Social and Personality Development 3/29/16 Relationships: Interpersonal Attraction • “Opposites attract” • “Birds of a feather flock together” • Similarity o Theodore Newcomb (1961) o We tend to like people who have similar interests, values, backgrounds and personalities o Similarity study § Males undergrads § Filled out questionnaires about attitudes o Hill, Rubin and Peplau (1976) study § Dating couples tend to resemble each other in: • Age, intelligence, educational plans, religion, physical attractiveness, height, attitudes about sexual behavior and sex/gender roles o Principle of homogamy: tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics • Proximity o Who we become associated with and whom we befriend can be best predicted by proximity o Festinger et al. (1950) § Random assignment to apartments § “Which three people in Westgate West do you see socially most often?” § Result: more likely to be friends with next-door neighbor than someone down the hall. Also more likely to be friends with people on their hall than on a different hall § How does social media change this? • What do we look for in a potential mate? o There are cultural differences o United States § Men and women both rank love and mutual attraction as primary to a successful relationship o China § Men rank good health as primary § Women rank emotional stability and maturity as primary o South Africa (Zulu) § Men rank emotional stability as primary § Women rank dependable character as primary o Similar characteristics rank high regardless of culture § Love § Mutual attraction § Dependability § Emotional stability § Pleasing disposition § Intelligence • Gender Differences in Mate Selection o Men tend to pick female mates who are young and attractive o Women tend to pick male mates who are ambitious and industrious • Evolutionary Perspective – David Buss o Men seek out young, fertile women who have a high fertility capacity (able to produce more offspring over a longer period of time) o Women seek out mates who will be able to provide resources that will promote survival of the child (economically well-off men) • Marriage Trends o Although 90% of the population do marry, the age of first marriage is increasing o Median age for first marriage in the US is 27 years for men o Median age for first marriage in the US is 25 years for women • Marriage Gradient o Men tend to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller, and lower in status o Women tend to marry men who are slightly older, larger, and higher in status o “Bottom of the barrel” men – low status men who cannot find someone of low enough status to marry o “Cream of the crop” women – women who are of higher status than anyone in the available pool of men • Mate Selection: The Filtering Model o People screen potential mates through successively finer-grained filters o First filter consists of broad determinants of attractiveness o As the filters get more and more finer-grained, the pool of potential mates decreases Career Consolidation • A stage that is entered between the ages of 20 and 40 • Young adults become centered on their careers • Criticism of Vaillant • Eli Ginzberg o Fantasy period (until age 11) § Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities or opportunities o Tentative period (adolescence) § Start to think about job requirements o Realistic period (young adulthood) § Start to explore specific career options • Holland o Certain personality types match well with certain careers § Realistic- down to earth, practical problem solver; don’t really like to be with other people (e.g., truck driver) § Intellectual- lean towards theoretical issues; social skills aren’t strong (e.g., science or math) § Social § Conventional- like very structured tasks (e.g., clerks or secretaries) § Enterprising- risk takers; enjoys taking charge (e.g., politicians or office manager) § Artistic- express themselves; prefer art to social interactions (e.g., any career with art) Chapter 12- Adolescence: Social and Personality Development 3/31/16 Major Depressive Episode • 20-35% males and 25-40% females have experienced depressive moods • 3% of teens are severely depressed • 2 weeks of either depressed mood or the loss of interest in nearly all activities • In adolescents, this mood may be irritable rather than sad • Significant distress or impairment in social, academic, or other important areas of functioning • Appetite is usually reduced (rapid changes in weight) • Insomnia (sleep disruption) • Negative view of self, world and future • Associated Features o Academic problems (low motivation) o Conduct disorder, ADHD, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders • Being depressed can… o Predict future problems o Heredity o Environment § There’s a gender gap in depression § Female gender role allows women to seek treatment; they are often times more willing to seek help from someone (admitting weakness) § Also a possible hormonal contribution (post-partum depression) § Much more stress on women than has been in years past Suicide • Rate increases significantly during adolescence o And for white males it raises again in middle to late adulthood (to prevent anyone having to take care of them) • Third leading cause of death after moving vehicle accidents and homicides • Gender difference in suicidal behavior o Women are more likely to attempt suicide o Men are more likely to commit suicide o Method: firearm, suffocation, poisoning • Common subtypes of teens • Family Factors o Parental emotional problems o Marital problems o Perfectionism • Common Preceding Events o Rejection by romantic partner o Humiliation after antisocial acts o Careful planning (who gets what and what will happen when they are gone) o Another suicide = cluster suicides § In adulthood, certain professions are at risk (also alcohol) • Prevention o Target risk factors o School counselors o Peer support groups o Telephone hotlines • Suicide Intervention o Stay with suicidal person o Listen o Express sympathy o Obtain professional help (call 911) o Remove weapons, knives, razors, scissors and drugs • What you can do… o JUST LISTEN o Don’t remind teen that life is much worse for other people § Feel “bad” for not feeling better § Invalidates negative feelings § May not feel comfortable talking any more
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