Week of November 16th
Week of November 16th BIO 106 - M001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS SHALLOW SEAS Biodiversity variety of life at a give site or ecosystem Also known as ecosystem health 0 Genetic diversity 0 Within one species 0 Scientist mainly interested in this type of diversity 0 Species diversity 0 Between species 0 Ratio of one species population vs total number of all organisms in an ecosystem Ecosystem diversity 0 Between ecosystems 0 Diversity of a collection of related species in a particular location at an ecosystem level Species richness vs evenness total number of species in an ecosystem proportion of species at a given site Hotspots location with very high species diversity at risk from human activities 0 Support nearly 60 of world s plant bird mammal reptile and amphibian species 0 De ned in 1988 by Norman Myers for terrestrial ecosystems Biodiversity in the shallow seas Habitats on the continental shelf 0 Less than 200m in depth 0 Energy from sunlight o Nutrients available from the land 0 Affected by tidal cycles Salt marsh Coastal areas in mid to high latitudes o Tidally inundated with salt water 0 Salt Marsh Zonation o Zones driven by tidal range Plants closest to the ocean have higher tolerance to acidi cation Plants closest to land have more terrestrial plant characteristics 0 more salt water low marsh 0 less salt water upland bank 0 primary producers Spartina patens juncus roemerianus Bats maritima invertebrate and vertebrate consumers conservation 0 habitat destruction globally 0 water ow modi cations MARINE ECOSYSTEMS SHALLOW SEAS o pollution from road run off ie gas oil and fertilizers Intertidal zones communities divided into zones according to tidal height ie distance above low tide major challenges 0 exposure to air 0 temp o salinity 0 wave action zonation o more air exposure greater wave action 0 less air exposure lower wave action Intertidal biodiversity Primary producers lichen green algae red algae brown algae Invertebrate consumers periwinkle barnacles mussels High biodiversity in tide pools Biodiversity driven by invertebrates Conservation 0 Harvest of resources 0 Invasive species 0 Ocean acidi cation o Pollution including oil spills Tide pools o Retain water at all levels 0 Major temperature and salinity changes 0 High biodiverstiy Kelp Forest Habitats Sea otters are important for kelp forests keep forest balanced and able to thrive Invertebrate consumers dominant 0 Feed on holdfasts and detritus 0 Some feed on plankton Vertebrate consumers shes sea otters sea lions marine birds 0 Conservation 0 Pollution 0 Elevated seawater temps El Ni oglobal warming 0 Located in temperate regions Coral reefs Habitat requires shallow water needs to be warm hard bottom clear water 0 Located in tropic regions 0 Home to some of the highest biodiversity hot spots on the planet 0 More than 4000 sh species and 800 species of coral Invertebrate consumers MARINE ECOSYSTEMS SHALLOW SEAS Conservation 0 Climate change Clicker questions 0 Refers to level of diversity within a single species genetic diversity 0 Which habitat has the greatest species richness coral reef Biodiversity hotspots refers to areas with high species diversity and are UNPROTECTED by human activity 0 Dominant Physical characteristic in salt marsh exposure of salt water 0 Dominant physical characteristic of species distribution in the intertidal zone tidal range DEEP SEA HABITATS Polar habitats Inaccessible to human exploration because polar ice caps covered by Ice 0 Arctic circle 66 33 N North pole o Basins exceed 3000m 0 will become icefree in the summers o productivity ice algae underside of ice is coated with green algae phytoplankton huge explosion when sun comes back around 0 consumers polar bears orca beluga walrus Antarctic circle 66 33 S o Oceans reach 56000m o All countries share Antarctica 0 Consumers orca humpback whale leopard seal Biodiversity Invertebrate consumers arthropods cnidarians ctenophores 0 Le Jelly sh crabs kri Arctic food web 0 Polar bears Orca Seals Phytoplankton Krill the base of invertebrate consumers Antarctic food web Phytoplankton at the base Squid more squids in the Antarctic than Arctic Baleen whales Orca eat small sh and whales Conservation concerns 0 Arctic 0 Climate change 0 Oilgas development 0 Over shing o Antarctic 0 Climate change 0 Over shing and whaling 0 Trash Biodiversity Hotspots o Hydrothermal events 0 Cold seeps Coldwater reefs How little we know about the ocean O DEEP SEA HABITATS Less than 5 of the sea oor has been explored We know more about the surface of the moon than the sea oor First evidence of life in the deep sea stalked crinoid Survey methods 0 Leadine letting out the line to get an idea of the depth 0 Single beam echo track gives you changes in depth 0 Multibeam sonar 0 Alvin rst manned submersible to dive down to 6500m Most research come from from federal research spending 0 More funding goes to space than ocean exploration Unmanned vs manned exploration Manned vehicles are limited for time of deployment 0 Oxygen supply Unmanned vehicles have done the majority of deep sea exploration 0 I unmanned underwater vehicles 0 remote operated vehicles Hydrothermal vents 0 First discovered in 1977 on the East Paci c Rise 0 520 known sites geothermal heated water vents are extremely hot 0 instead of using sunlight for energy use chemicals to generate primary productivity for food chain Two types of hydrothermal vents Black smokers o Hotter 350400 c o Appear black due to emission of sul dic materials 0 White smokers o Colder ZOO300 C o Lighter color due to emission of calcium and silicon materials Biodiversity 0 Primary producers symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria vent bacteria 0 Invertebrate consumers vent zooplankton vent clam tubeworm shrimp 0 Diversity much greater than vertebrate diversity 0 Pompeii worm a layer of insulating bacteria allows the worm to withstand the extreme heat in hydrothermal vents 0 Vertebrate consumers Zoarcrid sh vent rat sh Cold seeps 0 Chemosynthetic habitats that aren t hot No light habitat Usually the same temp as surrounding water Area where hydrogen sul de methane and other chemicals seep from the sea oor DEEP SEA HABITATS 0 Gas hydrates solid methane gas 0 Total energy stored in gas hydrates are estimated to be greater than those of all other known fossil fuels combined 0 Community tubeworms mussels and clams chemosynthetic bacteria gas bubbles Conservation 0 Mining 0 Scienti c exploration Cold water reefs vs warm water reefs Warm coral reefs 0 Shallow 0 Warm 0 High diversity 0 Conservation over shing habitat destruction climate change 0 Cold water coral reefs 0 Deep 0 Cold 0 High diversity 0 Conservation over shing habitat destruction climate change Cold water reefs No photosynthesis 0 Water temps of 412 c More than 3000 species 0 Slow growth and very long lives Cold water coral reef biodiversity More than 2000 invertebrate species 0 More than 500 species of sh 0 Dominant coral Lophelia pertusa Abyssal Plains Make up 79 of the ocean More area than all terrestrial habitats Characterized by at open expanses with thick layers of sediment Primary producers coming from surface of ocean o Phytoplankton 0 Marine snow coats bottom of sea oor 0 Sources of energy whale fall when a whale dies and sinks to the bottom wood fall 0 Invertebrate consumers organisms that live in the sea oor vampire squid giant squid Vertebrate consumers bristle mouth sh black swallower o Adaptations large mouths to eat big pieces of food since they don t nd food often sharp pointy teeth source of light 0 Conservation concerns exploitation climate change acidi cation shing
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