Week 14 Lecture Notes
Week 14 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Week 14 Lecture Notes Monday 11/16/15 Health Psychology • Health psychology: How our thoughts, feelings, or behavior influences our health o Regan is a good example of how optimism can influence healing. He got shot in the chest and acted like it was no big deal even though it was very serious. o Fast growing area • Growth of health psychology due to changes in what threaten us o Top killers in 1990: pneumonia and influenza, tuberculosis, diarrhea and intestinal problems o Top killers now: heart disease (stroke, heart attack) and cancer o Behavior influences our likelihood of getting heart disease and cancer • Biomedical approach aims to develop technology o Primary prevention: stop the disease before there’s an infection § Example: HIV infection can be avoided by using something like a condom when having sex. § Many diseases that used to be a problem are pretty much gone due to vaccinations that we got. o Secondary prevention: early diagnosis § Blood tests can be early ways to detect HIV or Ebola and other diseases. § Colonoscopy and breast exams can catch cancer in early stages. o Tertiary prevention: managing progression of the illness § Someone with HIV would be prescribed a cocktail of drugs to keep the disease from getting worse. • Behavioral approach to prevention o Behavior can promote health or illness o You can live better and longer by exercising regularly, not smoking, and eating right… and by avoiding dangerous activities (having unprotected sex, riding a motorcycle without a helmet) • Stress o A feeling that you cannot handle the demands placed on you o In part, stress is due to actual events that you go through o But appraisal of events as “threatening” is important Background factors • Cultural context Stress and Coping process • Genetic inheritance Potentially stressful event à appraisal Health • Life events à coping Outcomes • Personality • Physiological status • Social relationships • General Adaptation Syndrome o Hans Selye discovered a physiological reaction he called “stress”. By injecting this group of rats, the process of receiving the injections of hormones was making them stressed out and caused health programs. • Three phases to the stress response: o Alarm: fight or flight response, your initial reaction o Resistance: you start coping with the situation o Exhaustion: if you are continually exposed to new stresses then you eventually run out of resources to cope and become exhausted • Symptoms of stress: o Both psychological and social § Anxiety, depression, tension, irritability, hostility, reduced helping, stereotyping, depersonalization of others o Behavioral § Vocal stress (high pitch, rapid, faults), gaze avoidance, defensive posture, fidgeting, poor task performance (premature closure making decisions, memory deficits, decreased vigilance) o Physical § Heart rate, respiration rate, muscle tension, sweating, cold hands § Long term problems: lower immunology, gastrointestinal (heartburn or ulcers), high blood pressure • Gender differences o The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) o The familiar fight-or-flight response better describes men’s reactions than women’s o Females often show a “tend and befriend” reaction à they become more friendly with strangers o Evolutionary standpoint: females weren’t as prepared to fight if there was a predator and might not have been able to run if they had small children. So instead of fighting or running away, befriending the predator could be a better way to survive. Wednesday 11/18/15 TEACHER EVALUATIONS • The appraisal process o It’s all how you look at things • The depressive explanatory style (DES) involves o Discounting our successes, don’t really accept good things, explain away the positive things o Attributing failures to stable, global, and internal causes. § This is something that always happens to me § Thing are going wrong in every part of my life § It’s my problem that lead to this failure o DES leads to “hopelessness” o More common among women o Predicts health problems after age 45 o One study found male physicians and interviewed them about their wartime experiences. Those who had this “hopelessness” style were more likely to have health issues years later. • Optimism predicts health and high achievement o Martin Seligman (a researcher) worked with Berkley’s swim team. Some swimmers were pretty optimistic but others had more depressive styles. They did an experiment when the coach told them their time was slow no matter how they actually swam. Then they swam again, and those with the depressive style swam even slower. They had one swimmer who was really optimistic. He would get the negative feedback and jump back in and try even harder. He later went on to win 11 gold medals. NEGATIVE Weak Immune EMOTION System Unhealthy Behavior Stress Hormones Illness • Optimistic Illusions & Health o Taylor and Brown (1988): Normal/healthy people show… (1) Overly positive self-evaluations (the average person thinks they are better than average) (2) Illusions of control (overestimate how much they are in control, think they’re more likely to win the lotto if they chose their number compared to when someone else chose their number) (3) Unrealistic optimism o Depressed people can be more in touch with reality • Which do you believe? o Positive illusions are healthy o People with illusions only appear “healthy”, but they are defensive • Perceived Control o A sense of control reduces distress § Example: You stay up late studying for your final exams but when you decide to go to bed, you can’t fall asleep because your neighbor is blasting music. If you think talking to them would cause them to turn down the music, even that sense of control over the situation (even if you don’t actually go talk to them) make you feel more in control. It’s more stressful if you believe you couldn’t convince them to turn it down. • Type A and Heart Disease? • Personality differences o Type A behavior pattern: tendency to perceive situations as threatening (tend to be more competitive) o Friedman and Rosenman (1974): Most heart attacks not linked to known physical/biological risk factors but instead believed that psychological factors played into it. o Type A personality: competitive, aggressive, impatient, sense of time urgency § You possess type A behavior patterns if you move, walk, and eat rapidly, if you frequently do more than one thing at once, feel vaguely guilty for relaxing, chronically feel like you’re falling behind o Type B personalities are more relaxed • Hostility is a main risk factor, there’s nothing wrong with being urgent or competitive but it’s the hostility that isn’t good o Hostility leads to cynical beliefs o Hostile feelings like joy from the misfortune of someone you don’t like o Aggressive behavior o Type A personality doesn’t predict heart disease, hostility does à Expect to see this on the EXAM • Sources of Stress: Crises and Catastrophes o War à post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Why? § You’re isolated. You’re away from your friends, family, loved ones, and your culture § Loss of control § Your life is threatened § As part of your job in the military, you may have to hurt (or even kill) other people o Technological disasters § Examples: nuclear power plant disasters, dam breaks § Symptoms: nightmares, depression, alcoholism § Many feel resentment because they are man made disasters o Natural Disasters (like earthquakes, floods, tornados, forest fires) § Many survivors ask “Why me?” why did I survive when others were killed § Community cooperation • Sources of Stress: Major Life Events o Top stressors: (1) Death of a spouse, (2) divorce/separation (3) jail term • The more changes in life, the more stress o But negative changes are the most harmful, even though good changes can be stressful too o Negative events à increases the chance of catching a cold • Chronic stress o Leads to psychological problems, alcoholism, or even suicide o Job stress à § Stomach ulcers § Burnout: exhaustion, feeling unimportant, ignoring others