Week 10 Notes - HIST 1302
Week 10 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
HIST 1302 History of the U.S. Since 1865 Week 10 1 I. Road to War A. Increase in aggressive actions of states 1. Emperor Hirohito expanded Japanese forces and government into Asia in order to get the resources Japan required 2. Adolf Hitler formed Nazi Germany 3. Benito Mussolini ran Fascist Italy B. American isolationism and neutrality sentiments spread throughout the U.S. 1. Nye Committee a) Analyzed World War I (WWI) and questioned the reasoning behind entering the fight 2. Neutrality Acts (1935 – 1937) a) These acts stipulated that the U.S. could still conduct trade with both sides of the conflict while remaining neutral b) Don’t want a repeat of WWI 3. The U.S. remained neutral in Spanish Civil War (1936) a) Franco, with Germany’s support, took over Spain C. Interventionist thinking grows 1. Resulted in a series of debates a) Common argument – Britain and France are our allies therefore, we have a duty to aid them in the war b) Still heavily neutral 2. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s (FDR’s) Quarantine Speech (October, 1937) a) Reaffirmed that the U.S. will let Europe settle its own issues D. The Axis Alliance (November, 1936) 1. Germany, Italy, and Japan left the League of Nations after the approval for an alliance between them was denied 2. Made the alliance anyway E. Japan invaded China (summer, 1937) F. Nazi Germany confiscates and 1. Germany conquered and annexed Austria and Anschluss a) Claimed that the land belonged to Germany in the first place therefore it was justifiable, in their eyes, that they take it back (1938) 2 2. To try an appease Hitler’s desire for land, they gave Germany Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia a) Germany took all of Czechoslovakia G. The path towards war 1. The Munich Conference in September of 1938 failed to satisfy Germany 2. NaziSoviet Pact (August 1939) a) Germany took control of Poland using lightning warfare, known as Blitzkrieg, in 2 weeks b) Germany and the Soviet Union split Poland between the two of them (1) They would continue to coexist peacefully so long as Germany did not invade the Soviet Union H. Germany’s invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939) 1. The Blitzkrieg on Poland instigated a war between Germany and Britain 2. This lead to Germany’s seizure of most of Europe by the mid1940s I. America’s response to the events in Europe 1. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) a) Supplied almost everything to our allies, short of U.S. involvement in the war 2. FDR couldn’t get involved in the war due to the fact that America was largely isolationist a) America’s isolationism severely limited FDR’s administration’s policies (1) America First Committee protested any involvement in the war and proclaimed isolationism (2) The rise of AntiSemitism in America didn’t allow the U.S. to aid persecuted Jews in Europe J. Wagner–Rogers Bill defeated (1939) 1. This bill would a) Admit 20,000 Jews into the U.S. from Nazi Germany 2. This bill was sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner and Representative Edith Rogers a) After polls were taken across America, this bill was dropped due to the fact that the poll stated America did not want more foreigners to immigrate to the U.S. 3. American Jewish Organization 3 a) Stayed quiet during this time frame due to America’s AntiSemitist beliefs 4. Not all of America was opposed to the war a) Military Training Camps Association (1) Members of this association, along with many others, traveled across the border between the U.S. and Canada to enlist in the Royal Airforce (2) This committee was dedicated to defending America and aiding the Allies in the fight against Germany 5. The presidential campaign for the election of 1940 was very limited a) FDR was very conservative in his election campaign (1) Didn’t want to lose the votes of antiwar voters b) After FDR was successfully reelected (1) Went back to promoting the war effort and aiding out allies K. Undeclared Naval War in the North Atlantic 1. The German UBoat (AKA submarines) wolf packs attacked any vessels in the North Atlantic L. FDR believed that entering the war in Europe was inevitable by the Fall of 1941 M. The U.S. entered the war in response to an attack in the Pacific 1. The U.S. had stopped selling steel and oil to Japan at the start of the war 2. Japanese retaliation a) The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor (1) They destroyed the entire U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor to cripple the U.S. (a) This would cause the war to become significantly shortened (2) They did this because they were desperate for oil and steel b) Japan’s success was contributed to the negligence on the part of FDRs administration for leaving Pearl Harbor vulnerable (1) There were multiple warning signs before the attack took place (2) They were ignored N. Congress declared war on Japan (December 8, 1941) 1. In response, Japan’s Axis ally, Germany, declared war on the U.S. II. The War in Europe – U.S. Troop Involvement in the Fighting 4 A. The Allies had several disagreements on the style of military strategy they should implement against the Axis powers 1. They finally agreed on their first strategy a) Move across the Pacific, conquer an island, build and airfield, repeat 2. The Allies still disagreed on how to put the strategy into action B. Hitler invades the Soviet Union 1. Violated the NaziSoviet Pact 2. Soviet Union created a second flank to fend of German troops a) It was successful until 1944 C. The campaigns of North Africa and Italy 1. Unanimous agreement that Germany would have to surrender unconditionally in order to end the war a) No treaty or cease fire will be procured 5