World History- November 16-20
World History- November 16-20 HIST 1010 - 001
Popular in World History I
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
Reviews for World History- November 16-20
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/20/15
Imperial Chinese I. Tang Dynasty- 618-907 (pronounced “Tung”)- -Their background was not strictly Chinese, part Turk and part Chinese. The period of the Tang Dynasty was a very international period. They were open to foreigners (Turks, Indians, Japanese, Persians, etc.) The second emperor was very important. His name was Li Shimin, a great military leader. He was also a poet/writer who wrote often about what was essential in being a good emperor. He believed one needed to be well-educated and drawn to the humanities/literacy, as well as a good military ruler. -The capital at this time (City of Chang’an/Xi’an) was the largest and cosmopolitan city at this time. It was actually a planned city laid out in a perfect grid, separated into specific gated neighborhoods. Having about one million people, it was enormous during its time. -Many foreigners resided there and many merchants came and went to the major markets. Japanese would come to study Buddhism. Many Indians resided there to teach Buddhism. It was a hot spot for spreading Buddhism. Li Shimin’s son was obsessed with Turkish culture. For example, he loved to play polo which was a new sport from the Turks. -Li Bo was a famous poet who wrote some twenty thousand works. Poetry was very famous during this time. If you were attending a party, one would write a poem, or would buy one from a writer. -An Lushan was a general that had a notion that he wanted to break away and become a warlord. He recruited troops from all outside of the border to start a rebellion (755).After eight years, the net result was a new rattled feeling of China. The welcomeness to foreigners and exuberant China was now gone. II. Song (Sung) Dynasty -The focus went from Buddhism to Confucianism during this age. They wanted people to create focus in on the beliefs and fully uphold them in their daily lives. -Scholar-gentry was the system where people were educating their sons to sit in the government exam to be a part of the government. They needed to know the writings of Confucianism inside and out. In general, the administration neglected the military and the border. This made it vulnerable to invasion and conquest by the Mongol empire. III. Mongol Empire -These people lived in the north of China. The famous Chingis Khan (Genghis Khan) started the unaffected of the tribes and then this led to expansion. Many people looked down on the Mongol Empire, but the thing that enabled this expansion to occur was their military skills. They were very well trained atop of a horse. They were also great with a bow atop of a horse. Since speed was such a big factor, they were very intimidated. They also developed a system of fags to communicate. -They embraced the idea of foreigners because they themselves were different ethnicity. Marco Polo was one person who maintained a travel journal who stayed for several years. He was overwhelmed by the wealth and material culture of China. IV. Ming Dynasty -Ming Taizu (Hung Wu) led a secret society in taking military action against the Mongol rulers, who achieved success and then was installed as the emperor. He lays the blueprint for Ming rule. The ruled without a minister with “personal rule”. He didn't trust anyone else and had to do a lot of work. The reason why this may have been problematic was because it was not very efficient and may have been non-consistent. However, he did rely on the scholar- gentry. The governments at this time were very legalistic and conformed by law and order. This could be very harsh. For example, one of his men deceived him, so he killed him, his family, and anyone who knew them in any way. By the end, some forty thousand people were killed. -Cheng Ho (Zheng He) was a major explorer of this time. He was a Muslim who made a pilgrimage to Mecca himself. Therefore, he traveled many miles. The Chinese in general had giant ships compared to the Europeans to travel for a very long period of time a very long distance. It was an age of exploration. The Chinese were using this as a diplomatic mission and would take gifts to present to other governments. They were also trying to use this as a contact for trade. However, this type of exploration came to an abrupt end in 1453 by governmental rulers. Historians are not sure exactly why they decided to stop this. One idea is that the influence of the scholar-gentry did not support this and their influence may have caused it to cease. It was preferable for them to stay at home and tend to their own needs. This was the beginning of “turning inward”. -In turn, an agricultural revolution took place. The government got aggressive in assisting farmers. They published an almanac, sponsored infrastructure projects such as dikes and levies. In result, by the seventeenth century, the Chinese had the best fed population in the world. In addition, there were a few very important commodities. These included porcelain (first used during the Han dynasty) vases etc., silk, and also tea. The rest of the world was very obsessed with Chinese porcelain. Therefore, they became a super-producer. -Christian Missionaries: This was an extension of the Catholic reformation.AJesuit man named Matteo Ricci began to circulate some interest in Catholicism in the top level of society in China. He would bring European goods to spike interest, such as the mechanical clock. Others from the Franciscans also came. One thing they argued about was the language of the mass. The Franciscans wanted to mass to stay in Latin, but the Jesuits wanted the mass to be in Chinese. They liked to learn the people’s native language. Ultimately, this issue was referred to the pope, who decided to favor the traditional Latin mass (Rites Controversy). The conflict among these missionaries actually happened to undermine their effort at this time. Islamic Empires The Ottomans I. Expansion of the Empire -Many question how they became such a large superpower. One idea was that they had great rulers. The sultan was their emperor and one important sultan they had was named Mehmet the Conquerer. He conquered Constantinople, the Byzantine empire. One tool they used was the canon. Suleiman the Magnificent ruled during the largest geographical expansion of the empire. He played the part in the siege of Vienna in 1529 who tried to take Habsburg lands to extend the empire. One big cause for this was that he had an extremely large military. Additionally, he had special forces called the Janissaries. The way that they differ is that they were not born into Turkish or Muslim families. They were born into Christian (usually Greek Orthodox) families. They were taken from their families as a kind of tax and were reared to be fighting machines. They were enslaved elites. They could not marry or own property. Traditionally, when a man became a sultan, he would round up all of the possible relatives that could have replaced him and execute them. The Ottomans abandoned this law of fratricide and replaced it with simply locking them all up for the duration of the reign in a hiram. In turn, a decline in the quality of the sultan occurred because they were basically growing up in a hiram. However, later on, an official position by the name of the Grand Vizier came into play. The Koprulus family were the grand Vizier of this time. Therefore, even though they had trouble with sultans, the Grand Vizier played an important part which allowed them to try to have a comeback. John Sobieski was the king of Poland at the time and had invested time in pushing back the Turks. He actually was able to push them back out of Vienna. II. Ottomans in Eastern Europe -Their imprint of the area they resided was lasting. The ethnic composition altered. For example, many Greeks left their homeland. However, there were not tremendous numbers of Turks moving into the area. Therefore, there was a limited effect of the ethnicity. -The administration was not particularly harsh. Sometimes it was known to be better than the Christian reigns of that time. They did not bleed their economic resources dry. They would usually leave the areas (especially on the borders) to practice their own government. -Additionally, people were not forced to become Muslims. They could remain a Christian or a Jew by paying a tax. However, conversions did take place in pockets. For example, Bosnia was a state in the Balkans where a large amount of people became Muslim and that remains to this day. -They were also very culturally tolerant. They did not impose their culture or language. Historians believe this was one reason why their empire declined gradually (1683-1919). Therefore, not unifying the area and also being at war with another group of Islamics, it would become weaker and then what was finally left was the modern state of Turkey. Consumer Revolution in World History People started buying things without it being necessary. They would buy things to make them happy. It became an economic and social phenomena. This was a consumer revolution. This occurred due to expansion and also caused expansion in return. I. Relationship Between Goods and People -This relationship shifted. These good were not needed to survive; they were wanted. This was obviously a social idea. For example, some people may try to emulate the upper class. However, another big part of what was driving this was the concept of fashion. The idea that something is “trending” was new. This was kept alive by the concept of novelty (new) and obsolescence (old). Luxury consumption was a very important idea of this. Historians have looked into the idea of “therapeutic” shopping. -At this time, it was very controversial. This bothered intellectuals and actually caused a “luxury debate”. Those that were against it believed it was very wrong and against the Christian backbone. Others did not mind that much. However, they all understood that it stimulated the economy. -Imported goods were basically sustaining this. One main area this consumer revolution was occurring at was in Europe. They wanted rugs from the middle east, silk from China, and coffee. There were coffee houses in England often mainly for men where they would usually go and talk politics. One French cafe was known as “Cafe Procope” which had men and women, and there was also food.Also, there was cocoa, chocolate fromAfrica and the Americas, tea from India and China, and tobacco. Tobacco started in a pipe and even peasants smoked.Also, fabrics from India, especially the cherished calicos (printed cotton textiles). These were printed with great detail. Ceramics/porcelains from China (especially blue and white); lacquerware from China and Japan (“English Japanning” was what was Europe’s imitation products); metalware from the Middle East; and rugs from the Middle East (very intricately, hand woven, often put on tables) were all products as well. In the eighteenth century, the wealthy would send to China to get their dinnerware made with their family code of arms on it (very expensive). Isnic was a city of the Ottoman Empire that shipped a good bit of ceramics as well. English, French, Dutch, etc. would actually try to make knockoffs of many of these various goods. Meissen was a place in Germany where they finally were able to produce the same kind of porcelain that the Chinese were able to. Tulips were from the Ottoman Empire and the style of tulips changed almost annually. This was another status idea and people would need to keep up with the style as well as people speculating the future look of the new tulip.Animals also became another consumer goods (birds, monkeys, exotic animals). There were many paintings of this time, including still- life’s.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'