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Week 4 notes

by: Jack Bethke

Week 4 notes Hstaa 212

Jack Bethke

Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts

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Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
Week 4 12515 The Civil War A New Birth of Freedom 0 O Southerners do not see it as paradoxical that they were ghting for their freedom while they held others in bondage The military is being engaged in a commentary on freedom The military will be used all over the world following this war in order to de ne what Americans see as freedom It is often paradoxical such as in the Philippines and Puerto Rico Soldiers are part of this comment on American freedom and how that word changed over time April 12th 1861 Fort Sumter After SC secedes Union troops move into Ft Sumter to try and prevent violence Confederates under the command of PGT Beauregard re on the fort on the 12th USA war aims Reunite the states by force Use the Anaconda plan as their main stategy Idea was to blockade and squeeze the CSA to death CSA war aims Defend their nation Wanted to defend long enough that the union would give up the northern public the south felt could not handle a long war Wanted recognition by foreign powers USA advantages Population of 20 million people plus around 200000 immigrants peryear Had a standing army of about 17000 CSA problems 6 million free 4 million slaves Weak industrial ability All of the CSA39s combined manufacturing power equaled less than a quarter of New York Political divisiveness in the north Whigs Democrats copperheads northern Democrats with southern sympathies Lincolns political opponents Most of the people around Lincoln did not support him Abolitionists felt that Lincoln wasn39t taking his stance on slavery far enough Foreign interest a weak USA helps both France and Britain War was expensive Lincoln passes an income tax in 1862 Political divisiveness in the south Unionists especially in Appalachia Western VA becomes a Union state of West Virginia in 1863 Many people form units to ght for the Union The state39s rights debate ghting a war necessitates a centralized gov to raise taxes and set a cohesive policy Trying to attract Britain and France as well need recognition The border states that don39t secede create recruitment problems for the CSA 0 US soldiers Avg height on both sides was 5398 in and around 135 lbs most northerners were farmers 110 were wounded 113 died of disease 165 died in battle 0 CSA soldiers Many came from southern militias they did not have a standing army Many of these militias stayed in the states they were from Didn t have the same uniforms and tended to come from poor families who didn39t own slaves Fought because the north was in their countrystate Some express larger ideas of freedom mimicking what the Founding Fathers had done in the Revolution Union soldiers fought to protect what the FF set down 0 Militaries The bug regular force was in the North Both regular armies were small 1520000 troops The mainstay of both armies were volunteers terms of service starting at 3 months later in the war it extended to up top 3 years Militias came out of the states were sort of a precursor to the National Guard Southern militia was often used as a police force the Confederate Guards 0 Southern politics were important for the militias a governor from Miss Would not like to send his militia forces to ght in VA 0 Lincoln was able to just pass executive orders and get the troops he needs Both sides swell the ranks in the spring of 1861 In most cases the age of volunteers was 1835 years old 0 South can never produce more than l412 of the Union forces 0 Soldiers Manhood o It is a man s duty to go and ght Many didn39t buy into this Religion 0 Believing that they were doing god39s work God was on their side Freedom 0 Felt that they were ghting for their personal freedom Most were not writing about emancipation at the get go but as the Union troops move deeper south their ideas of freedom changed as they encountered the effects of slavery 0 Union Of cers Win eld Scott Lincoln39s general at the beginning of the war Set the Anaconda plan in motion Grant is not doing well in his personal life at the beginning of the war Sherman was the head of the Louisiana Military institute later LSU when the war started he resigned his commission at the academy When the war started he reenlisted Many northern of cers were politicians not trained at West Point A problem in both armies but especially in the Union Politicians see it as a publicity campaign rather than a military one 0 Southern of cers Got the cream of the crop PGT Beauregard AS Johnston was given command in Kentuclq the most promising of cer at the start of the war RE Lee and TJ Jackson were to become the best of the southern of cers 0 Lee was not in command at the beginning of the war He sees VA as his country and becomes Jeff Davis military advisor 0 Jackson becomes a brigadier before Manassas and a Major General after 0 Amateur of cers John Logan in the north rose to Major General on merit Nathan Bedford Forrest rose from private to major general Both sides had nonmilitarily trained of cers who rose to prominence o 3 theaters of war VA is the hotbed in between the capitols The West out ibn Tenn The coastal and river war fought by the navy Scotts plan wants to divide these areas and defeat them individually 0 Battle of Bull Run Union masses around Washington while the South masses around Richmond Meet at Bull Run a rail road junction north of Richmond Irwin McDowell commands the Union and Beauregard commands the south Socialites bring picnic baskets to watch a battle Felt the Union was going to whip the rebels The Union shows off its strength and the rebels retreat the Union advance loses order and this is where Jackson becomes a Stonewall Stems the tide of the engagement the Union retreats in disorder and the rebels gain a lot of con dence Convinces both sides that this was not going to be a quick war especially when they see the casualty numbers 0 End of 1861 War is not going to be short It is not going to be an easy war US Army was best trained and best supplied in the world by 1861 but was stalled outside of DC the Army of the Potomac Gen George B McClellan a West Pointer Called quotLittle Macquot Had won a battle in West VA to help that state join the Union and so Lincoln appoints him to command 0 His genius was in preparation a great logistical general Brought in new people to train the volunteers 0 No stomach for ghting incredibly hesitant to act Had many chances to crush the southern army but he never did 0 Could be blamed for how long the war went on Was a Democrat did not like Lincoln and eventually ran against him in the 1864 presidential campaign 0 Peninsular Campaign MarJuly 1862 Lincoln wants McClellan to move on Richmond Little Mac had convinced himself that VA was infested with southern armies Rather than march directly on Richmond he landed his army on the Jamestown peninsula JE Johnston was the Confederate commander squaring off against the Union 0 US Navy 72 gunships and many smaller ships blockading the coast preventing foreign resupply for the CSA lronclads were a new innovation Confederates capture the USS Virginia at the Norfolk naval base made it into an ironclad called the CSS Merrimack o Merrimack destroyed 2 Union ships and then the Union developed lron clads of their own 0 Union creates the USS Monitor with a rotating turret on the top The forrunner of modern naval gunnery Only had 2 guns but had a low pro le Battle of Hampton Roads Va in 1862 0 Monitor and Merrimack slug it out for 4 hours until the Merrimack is scuttled by the Confederates o Shiloh April 1862 Major battle in the Western Theater Was the deadliest event in American history up until that point Grant and Buell39s army 75000 wer driving to split the south AS Johnston s army 45000 launches a surprise attack on the Union CSA initially routes the USA but tactical errors emerge o CSA refuses to ank the Hornet39s Nest send wave after wave at a defended Union Corps The Union troops eventually surrender but not after in icting massive casualties Johnston is killed and command passes to Beuregard Does not press the attack during the night Buell39s army arrives and reinforces Grant who counter attacks and wins the battle the next day 2500 killed 23000 total casualties Woke everyone up to how awful this war was going to be 0 Weapons Guns were way ahead of the tactics muskets are now ri ed and can shoot Minie Balls 300 yards accurately Artillery was now also ri ed creating greater range and accuracy Result in massive casualties and horri c wounds 0 Minie balls are soft lead they expand when they hit something hard like bone shatters the bone Results in amputations o Napoleonic Tactics lngrained in of cers heads Based on fast movement of troops 0 Better trained troops as well Combination of cavalry artillery and infantry Belief in the massing of troops in tight formations lling the ranks Made them very easy targets for accurate artillery and small arms re Bayonet charge was very useful for running enemies off the battle eld when both armies used short ranged and inaccurate muskets Not useful in the Civil War because the weapons had greater range Most bayonet charges did not result in casualties caused by bayonets 12815 State s Rights and Southern lronies Conscription Act State39s Rights and Southern Issues 0 O 0 Makes it dif cult for Davis to keep up with the strong US Federal gov especially once Lincoln passed the Conscription Act In 1862 the South passed a Conscription Act a year before the Union was forced to Began as any man 18 35 later 1650 Essentially served until they died or the war was over Railroads were different from state to state South relied on a quotpipelinequot concept The CSA central gov had to as state governors to send their militias to ght on a certain date for a certain time Were essentially trying to patch leaks to halt the Union by using militias that were in the area of the Union39s advance States rights remained central to their ideology Northern Political lronies O Fugitive Slave Act was supposed to require northerners to return slaves to their masters if the slaves were captured by the Union armies Generals pointed out that returning slaves gives the south the man power to keep up the war effort 0 Lincoln appeases the South He just wants to reunite the Union Says he would end the war without freeing the slaves if he could Suspends Habeas Corpus so that he could arrest dissidents such as the secret society called the Sons of Liberty Lincoln arrests their leader Gen Benjamin Butler was one of the early people not returning slaves to the South for the reasons listed above Classi es the slaves as contraband of war Unionists in Kentch had already been freeing slaves and arming them to ght the South 0 The Mississippi River 0 O A continuously important objective for the Union Controlling the river essentially cuts the Confederacy in half AprilJune 1862 New Orleans Early naval target guarded by two forts on either side of the Miss River Admiral Farragut assembles a eet to take the town People living in the city thought the defenses were impregnable As Farragut s eet approaches the city the CSA send aming rafts at the Union in an attempt to disrupt the advance but Farragut is able to take the city in May Memphis falls to the combined naval and land power of the Union in June leaving only Vicksburg on the Miss o The Shenandoah Valley Campaign JanJune 1862 O O O O O O The South39s breadbasket had to keep it safe in order to keep up the war effort As the Union Army marches down the VA Peninsula Lee worries about Federal reinforcements coming down the Shenandoah and so Lee dispatches Jackson to defend the valley Jackson occupies 3 separate Federal armies preventing them from reinforcing McClellan The strategy is to unnerve Washington DC Tactics included quick movements and long marches trains and terrain works to Jackson39s advantage Jackson has 17000 troops ghting a combined force of 60000 Feds Able to strike them where they are weak and least expect it 0 Seven Days Campaign Peninsula 0 O 0 Joe Johnston is replaced by Lee after and early battle At rst Lee is disliked by his troops The Union army eventually surrounds Richmond but McClellan is very cautious and is slow to advance on the city JEB Stuart rides a famous cavalry raid around the entire Union army Once Lee replaces Johnston the Confederates become the Army of Northern Virginia Lee is able to beat a numerically superior foe over and over again Constantly anks the Union until they retreat back to Washington These battles begin Lee39s legendary status o The Legend of Lee quotWhen I was too weak to defend I would attackquot 0 Could say this because Lee knew the general39s he was ghting Knew that daring tactics would beat cautious generals Lee had an early reputation for cuation which disappears during the 7 Day39s battles 0 Freedom Changing the Character of the War 0 Abolitionists are on Lincoln39s case 0 The war is dragging on and to Fredrick Douglas it seems obvious to arm blacks and let them ght for their own freedom the slaves have the most to ght for 0 Union is worried about Britain and France getting involved with the CSA 0 Lincoln begins to consider this in 1862 Lincoln was against slavery but proreelection he was a shrewd politician Lincoln does not have the political ammunition to free the slaves The war in 1862 was going extremely poorly for the Union 0 Antietam Sept 17th 1862 the First lnvasion Lee moves up into Maryland and the Union has no idea where he IS By a stroke of luck a Union soldier nds 3 cigars that have Lee39s battle plans in them McClellan sits for a few days not quite sure what to do Lee takes up a strong position on the south side of Antietam Creek near the town of Sharpsburg Bloodiest day in American history Weak tactics by the Union 0 Burnside39s Corps is held off trying to capture a bridge by a few hundred Confederates Once Burnside nally captures the bridge he is not reinforced and is driven back 3650 killed 23000 wounded and missing combined casualties Union could claim a victory for stopping Lee39s invasion Did not follow up the battle McClellan did not pursue a decisive engagement with Lee as the Confederates limped back to Va Matthew Brady photographs the quotDead of Antietamquot brings the war home to people who had never seen a battle before Finally saw the damage that the war caused o Antietam quotvictoryquot gave Lincoln the political capital to pass the Emancipation Proclamation in November of 1862 went into effect on Jan 1St 1863 Ironically only freed slave in states rebelling against the Union where Lincoln held no jurisdiction Did not actually free anyone 0 By the end of 1862 there is a sense that the war39s meaning is changing Becomes about more than the Union but also the new meanings of freedom and who that extends too Civilians begin seeing the horrors of the war People feel that the war will go on for a long time The Civil War Part 2 0 Themes 0 O O 0 Freedom and its changing de nitions Material realties Weapons fenced railroads etc Beginning in August 1862 the Union begins creating black regiments First time the federal gov got involved in this After the Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect even more blacks are mobilized Soldiers and citizenship A link between military service and citizenship Blacks and immigrants who served in the Union had a stronger claim to citizenship Summer of 1863 see larger numbers of black soldiers Eventually compose 9 of the Union military 0 178892 served in the army and another 10000 served as sailors 0 Were initially used for labor but eventually were organized into combat units 0 Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville O O O Fredericksburg Dec 1862 Ambrose Burnside replaces McClellan as the Union commander Had the Union moved faster the battle may had turned out differently Burnside needed pontoon bridges which took 18 days to get there In those 18 days Lee was able to occupy and fortify Mary s Heights overlooking the town Burnside feels political pressure to attack could not abandon the campaign without a ght Union presses the attack across the river Material realities of the battle CSA has the high ground with cannon awaiting the Union troops CSA also held a sunken road which had a stonewall for cover Also freezing temperatures Wounded soldiers laid on the battle eld all night because there was no system for recovering wounded soldiers from the battle 14 Union assaults result in 13000 casualties to the CSA39s 5300 The later assaults were stepping over thousands of battles Some troops got near the wall but never took it Fredericksburg is a disaster Poor generalship Many in the north feel they are losing Lincoln drafts a Conscription Act to augment the Union forces The state of the war in addition to the draft creates a stronger antiwar movement 0 Societies like the Sons of Liberty want to create a cease re with the South 0 Vicksburg and Grant material realities Grant had to deal with the Miss River All the area north of Vicksburg was a swamp Grant could not move through it with a large force Grant39s plan was to abandon his supply lines cross to the west side of the river march down to the south of Vicksburg and then cross the river again to take up positions to the East of the town Fights 5 series of battles culminating in a 3 month siege of the city 0 Chancellorsville May 13 1863 Lee is outnumbered 21 but wins a great victory with audacious tactics Burnside is replaced by Joe Hooker who was supposedly a ghter 0 Had some success at Antietam o Came up with a plan to attack Lee39s forces still around Fredericksburg When Hooker approaches Lee breaks the rules of warfare by dividing his army in the face of a numerically superior for Hooker wants to launch a double enveloping attack on Lee but Lee sends Jackson on a long anking march around Hookers left ank o Hooker ignores reports ofJackson39s movement 0 Jackson hits Union soldiers sitting in camp routs them easily Jackson39s attack was launched too late darkness prevented the CSA from completing the victory 0 Thought of a night attack and goes out to gain reconnaissance but is shot by his own men who thought he was a Union cavalry unit 0 Huge blow to the south 17000 union and 13000 Confederate casualties Mounting casualties for both sides 0 These two victories give Lee a lot of con dence wants to take the war north 0 Gettysburg and quotTurning Pointsquot in History 0 Lee feels that winning a large battle in the north would force capitulation Also want to lure the north away from the southern food sources and live off the North39s farms for a while 0 Lee39s goal is to attack the rail junction at Harrisburg Penn Lee loses track of his cavalry under Stuart who is leading a cavalry raid to enhance his pro le Lee loses his eyes and ears without his cavalry Did not know what the Union was doing Wanted to avoid another Antietam o Hooker is replaced by George G Meade 0 Battle of Gettysburg begins as Confederates march into the town looking for shoes CSA force was not supposed to engage the Union but they bump into a Union cavalry brigade and engage them anyway Both sides begin pouring reinforcements into the ght Union occupies the high ground 0 Longstreet who replaced Jackson39s role as Lee39s right hand man has a plan to ank the Union and take the high ground Lee overrules this and launches a frontal assault which fails First day ends with the Union still holding the high ground 0 Day 2 Dan Sickles advances his troops without orders from a defensive position and puts his troops out in a eld with no protection on their anks Union soldiers are hit by Longstreet s division Fight as best as they can but are pushed back through the Wheat eld and the Peach Orchard Hood39s Texan division with some Alabama troops attacks Little Round Top the extreme left ank of the Union 0 CSA knew if they got cannon on this hill they could totally turn the Union39s ank 0 20th Maine under the command ofJoshua Chamberlain is the last unit on the Union39s ank When they run out of ammunition they launch a bayonet charge driving the Confederates off of the hill Lee39s nal mistake of the battle Wants to launch Pickett s division in a frontal assault at the Union 0 Longstreet protests Almost like a reversed Fredericksburg The Confederates are slaughtered by cannon re and once they hit the Emmitsburg Road they are slowed by a fence and come under small arms re Meade does not follow up the victory but it is a huge loss for the South Lee would never again invade the Union 0 Gettysburg as a turning point In hindsight yes In the minds of contemporaries they were not sure what would come of it About 46500 casualties 9000 dead in 3 days of ghting Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address in Nov 1863 when he dedicated the battle eld 0 Grant in Charge 0 Takes Vicksburg on July 4th one day after Gettysburg concludes 0 Grant39s victories push Lincoln to put him in overall command of the Union military Grant makes his HQ with the Army of the Potomac The Eastern Theater changes by Grant39s presence Does not get unnerved by massive casualties and understands that he could grind the South down in a war of attrition Grant always pushes south MayJune 1864 Grant ghts battles at the Wilderness Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor Cold Harbor is Grant39s biggest regret Many of the battles are losses or draws for the Union but he can replace casualties that the South cannot Cold Harbor June 1864 Sends frontal assaults against WWI style trenches Eastern Campaign results in a 9month siege at Petersburg VA Looks like WWI trench warfare Lots of disease typhoid malaria cholera etc Lincoln is running for reelection at this point fears that an anti war candidate would win and sue for peace on unfavorable terms for the Union In the West Sherman launches his total war campaign on Atlanta Confederates retreat into a siege outside Atlanta Political rami cations The siege s did not look good to Lincolns political success The successful capture of Atlanta helps Lincoln win the fall election 0 Total War 0 O O 0 Not the orgin of total war but an early modern example Sherman s march south is one of razing and plunder Punishes the south Philip Sheridan does the same thing in the Shenandoah Valley Destroyed farms and anyway for the people to live quotWar is cruelty There is no use trying to reform it the crueler it is the sooner it will be overquot The south is greatly angered by Sherman s tactics creates animosity that lingers to this day Sherman marches to the sea captures Savannah and turns north into the Carolina s as the Petersburg Campaign begins to wind down 0 End of the War 0 War ends on April 9th 1865 when Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Results in the 13th 14th and 15th amendments Also results in a new de nition of freedom Gives the war a higher purpose rather than just 650000 deaths Reconstruction is a military occupation of the South Andersonville is a prison in Georgia where up to 45000 Union prisoners 13000 die in the camp of starvation disease First time the public is exposed to this sort of brutality o What to do with the Free Slaves O Colonization send the blacks back to Africa Some blacks do this and colonize what would become Liberia and Sierra Leon 0 Also try and settle the slaves on land that was con scated from large landowning whites Broke up plantations and gave the slaves land on the coast of the Carolinas but during Reconstruction much of this land was taken back by the whites Developed new towns where free blacks could settle 0 Most slaves remain in the south become sharecroppers which is only just a step above slavery 0 Lincoln is Assassinated o Replaced by Andrew Johnson who had a very different view on the south and his policy is harsh on the south 0 End of the war still sees the end of racial slavery o Raises the question of who is the Union for Who does it bene t Seems to help the blacks at rst but that falls apart quickly 0 Rise of the Lost Cause mentality and the KKK


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