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Week 11 Notes

by: Alexandra Cummins

Week 11 Notes FSCN 1112

Alexandra Cummins
U of M
GPA 3.97
Principles of Nutrition
Mashek, Douglas

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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of the water soluble vitamins as well as minerals and water.
Principles of Nutrition
Mashek, Douglas
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 11/20/15
Week 11 Pyridoxine B6 0 Toxicity or deficiency can lead to nerve damage 0 Minimally stored in the muscle 0 Functions I Metabolism of glycogen and amino acids acts as a coenzyme I Helps make heme groups neurotransmitters and vitamins o Deficiencies I Can lead to anemia 0 Can be used to treat carpel tunnel syndrome PMS and nausea during pregnancy Folate B9 very important 0 Absorption is not always 100 Too much can mask a B12 deficiency Most foods are fortified with synthetic folate Naturally found in legumes leafy greens oranges Must be broken down in foods to become available Minimal storage in the liver Functions I Makes THFA which supports DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism I Helps synthesize neurotransmitters o Deficiencies I Megaloblastic anemia I Anemia is a real problem in the US because it can develop if you don t eat right on a daily basis I Neural tube defects maternal deficiency can harm nerve tissue causing spina bifida in babies Vitamin B12 cobalamin 0 Plants can t supply all of your B12 you need to consume meat seafood or take supplements 0 Forms many protein complexes to help regulate absorption Minimal storage in the liver 0 Functions I Important in the formation of methionine helps amino acid metabolism I Needed for odd chain fatty acid synthesis 0 Deficiencies I Anemia I Nerve degeneration I Increased homosysteine levels increased risk of cardiovascular disease I The elderly and vegetarians are most at risk 0 O O O O O 0 Choline 0 Found in milk liver eggs peanuts as lecithin O 0 Functions I Important in phospholipids lipoproteins cell membranes I Precursor for neurotransmitters Deficiencies I Rare I Can cause fatty liver VLDL is suppressed Vitamin C ascorbic acid 0 O Smokers need more than normal people to counteract oxidative stress from smoking Most animals can make their own vitamin c but not humans Minimal storage in the brain and adrenal glands Deficiency I Scurvy bleeding of the gums skin Function I Assists with collagen connective tissue synthesis I Antioxidants I Aids iron absorption I Helps immune function I Does not treat the common cold Water and Major Minerals 60 of the body is water most minerals regulate electrical signals in the body water 0 O intracellular uid water in each cell makes up about 23 of the total body water extracellular uid water between cells and in other uids like blood water balance controlled by the balance between different electrolytes inside and outside cells osmosis water ows through the cell membrane to be where the higher concentration of electrolyte is sodium potassium pump pumps sodium into cell and potassium out to go against the cell s gradient requires energy functions of water 0 O O O O transports nutrients and oxygen makes up miscellaneous body uids saliva bile lubrication between cells temperature regulation sweat also water has a high specific heat so your body takes a long time to heat up and cool down waste removal water can be found in food as well as drink 0 0 average 20 from food 80 from liquid intake needs vary with body size and composition toxicity hyponatremia kidneys can t process water fast enough so the electrolytes are diluted too much cells swell deficiencies dehydration O 0 body responds I antidiuretic hormone kidneys are told to retain more water reninangiotensin and aldosterone system kidneys tell blood vessels to constrict and kidneys reabsorb sodium and chlorine ions factor affecting bioavailability of minerals O O intake of other minerals ex zinc and copper have the same charge and similar absorption bmechanism so they compete for absorption phytic acid this fiber in plants binds to minerals making them difficult to absorb I yeast leavened bread helps break this down by releasing enzymes oxalic acid found in leafy greens ex spinach has a lot of calcium but little is absorbed because of the oxalic acid polyphenols antioxidants that prevent absorption of some minerals vitamins work together with minerals to increase absorption type of supplement I ex calcium needs acidic conditions to be absorbed so calcium carbonate is a bad way to get calcium because it is a base Major Minerals Sodium O O O O 0 An extracellular cation outside the cell Consumed primarily as NaCl table salt The daily value is more than the upper limit Most salt comes in processed foods Functions I Helps with absorption of glucose and amino acids I Muscle contraction I Nerve impulses I Water balance too much can force your body to maintain excess water Deficiencies very rare hyponatremia comes more from drinking too much water Excess sodium problem I 95 of Americans are over the UL for sodium intake I increased risk of heart disease hypertension stroke and kidney stones I prevent by cooking more meals at home from raw ingredients Potassium O O O O 0 An intracellular cation inside the cell Foods fruits vegetables dairy whole grains ex potatoes beans US does not consume enough potassium to balance the sodium intake Functions similar to sodium also regulates heart beat Deficiencies I Hypokalemia irregular heartbeat fatigue I Deficiency can be a side effect of antihypertension medicine 0 Toxicity too much can lead to heart problems hyperkalemia Chlorine 0 Mostly comes from salt 0 Need about the same amount as sodium 0 Function maintains uid balance Calcium 0 The most abundant mineral in the body 0 Found in dairy fortified foods green leafy vegetables 0 Important in maintaining bone health 0 Toxicity is rare unless supplements are not taken correctly 0 Bioavailability I Based on the food I Best absorbed when eaten with other foods I Decreases with age 0 Blood calcium levels are tightly regulated 0 Functions I Bone functionmaintenance Cortical bone 75 of mass on the outside of the bone Trabecular bone spongy in the middle Osteoblasts add calcium to the bone Osteoclasts remove calcium from the bone to increase calcium levels in the blood Lack of calcium in the diet will force the bones to break down to supply calcium for the blood I Blood clotting I Muscle contraction I Cofactors for certain enzymes I Nerve impulses Signal is sent to nerve Calcium channels open in nerve near synapse Neurotransmitter is released Signal is sent to target cell Absorption I Most calcium is not absorbed I Some calcium makes it into the cells of the GI tract but those cells are shed and the calcium is not absorbed I Some calcium is lost in urine and sweat Bone loss from minimal intake of calcium I Low bone mass osteopenia I Very low bone mass osteoporosis I Kyphosis dowanger s hump I Bone health can be diagnosed using a DEXA scan Prevention consume vitamin D calcium and phosphorus also have an active lifestyle 0 Take calcium when you are young to build a good foundation one you reach 30 it is almost impossible to build more bone time is spent maintaining or loosing it Phosphorus O 0 Found in milk cheese bakery products cereal baking powder Function important in bone and teeth health I Important in ATP DNA and RNA production also cell signaling I Deficiency is rare chronic deficiency can lead to tooth loss Magnesium O O O 0 Sulfur o o 0 Found in plants hard water milk meats Makes up a part of chlorophyll changes color with pH Only 4060 is actually absorbed take in small amounts to increase absorption Wide variety of functions Deficiencies lead to irregular heartbeat muscle spasm increased risk for osteoporosis Toxicity can only come from misusing supplements Function helps form new proteins stabilizes them Found in Vitamins and amino acids Gluten is a good source of sulfur because of the cysteine an amino acid Hypertension O O O O 13 of all Americans have it not fully understood why risk factors I age I race African Americans have an increased risk I other diseases increase risk obesity diabetes I salt intake lifestyle changes to reduce hypertension I weight reduction I DASH dietary approaches to stop hypertension I Active lifestyle I Limit sodium and alcohol consumption


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