Week 8 Classics 20 Notes
Week 8 Classics 20 Notes Classics 20
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
11l16l15 Lecture 21 The Arbiter of Tasi o No class Wednesday before Thanksgiving 0 Exile of Ovid o 8 CE first and most famous case of literary censorship ovid alleges two causes carmen et error a poem and a mistake carmen The Art of Love public charge forced to go somewhere much speculation on error Exile of Julia the Younger daughter of Julia the Elder and Marcus Agrippa in the same year Sent to Tomis in modern day Romania never returned to Rome and died a broken man in exile just before his 60th birthday 0 Aulus Cremutius Cordus 0 second victim of censorship 0 Roman Historian writing under Emperors Augustus and Tiberius o celebrated the heroes of the Republic Brutus and Cassius the last of the Romans charged with treason it was claimed that to praise Julius Caesar s murderers was to speak ill of Caesar s descendants namely the Emperors Augustus and Tiberius o starved himself to death 0 Senate ordered his books to be burnt by the aediles 0 but the book survived and was republished after the Emperor died poets and historians started to check their words two types of epic poetry flourished o epics on Greek themes mythology vague political allusions o panegyrics of Roman Emperors explicit praise of Emperors o Caligula and Literature 0 Didn t like Vergil or Livy o sought to ban their stuff from libraries 0 NEro and Literature 0 resurgence of great writers Lucan epic Seneca oratory philosophy drama Petronius novel 0 Lucan Marcus Annaeus Lucanus I Nephew of Seneca stoic quaestor and augur Roman epic poet educated in Roman and Athens won prize at the first Neronia olympic games for poetry 000000 0 I Pharsalia poem on battle of Pharsalus where Julius Caesar defeated Pompey also known as Civil War poem ends abruptly survives in 10 books theme between Caesar and supporters of the Republic sees Civil War as horrific open flattery of Nero 0 descended from the god Julius Caesar o placed in center of universe but may have been making fun of Nero s weight Lucan and the Gods o gods don t play an active role but Fate does 0 suggested Cato was equal to the gods hero for the stoics lacks central heroic character Julius Caesar becomes a villain Republican figures more sympathetic Pompey Brutus Cato full of blood and guts I Suicide of Lucan Seneca born in Corduba Spain wealthy important provincial family father was an authority on rhetoric O O O 0 brothers charged with treason implicated in plot to assassinate Nero same plot Seneca was implicated in read his own poetry as he died rumor that he implicated his mother in the conspiracy was 26 years old I Annaeus Mela father of Lucan I Annaeus Novatus governor of Greece Gallio dismissed charges against the apostle Paul Political career I Rome s most famous orator and philosopher I almost killed by Caligula I banished to island of Corsica during Claudius s reign for adultery with Agrippina s sister I recalled from exile by Agrippina to be Nero s tutor told to teach Nero anything he wanted except philosophy I Chief advisor of Emperor Nero enormous influence Suicide I implicated in conspiracy of Calpurnius Piso no involvement but some conspirators favored Seneca as next emperor aristocrats would usually be given the opportunity to kill themselves and rarely faced execution triple suicide models of Socrates and Cato the Younger 0 cut his veins blood didn t flow he was a vegetarian 0 took hemlock poison no effect what Socrates took 0 suffocated in a vapor bath had asthma so he choked to death Wife of Seneca tried to kill herself too but was saved and was pale for the rest of her life for losing so much blood 0 Gaius Petronius Arbiter o brief obituary in historian Tacitus knew how to enjoy life 0 The Arbiter of Taste The Judge of Refinement I how Nero thought of Petronius I if Petronius liked something it must have been good 0 Suicide I accused by Commander of Praetorian Guard I wrote out a list of Nero s sexual partners and details every kind of activity sent it under seal to Nero I broke his signet ring after sealing the letter I destroyed expensive fluorite ladle that Nero liked I aristocrats woul dhave to flatter the emperor when killing themselves so he wouldn t hurt their family I Petronius however was defiant I cut veins bound them 0 Satyricon one of only two surviving novels in Latin the work of a moralist or a work of the most profound immorality Written in Greek romance stories young man falls in love with young woman separation parental opposition etc Origins of Title 0 from Greek word satyros mythological creature part human part goat known in mythology for wild sexual behavior and alcoholism 0 also from Latin word satura something full a medley o satire poem or work of prose in which prevailing social aesthetic or moral failings are ridiculed with irony or sarcasm Encolpius hero of the Satyricon 0 young man ordinary guy 0 thief parasite pervert his good qualities 0 Greek name in the kolpos o kolpos any type of cavity crotch suggested of stick it in 0 name used by male prostitutes o hero wanders suffers hardships harassed by gods similar to Aeneas o Priapus angry god of the Satyricon god of male seuality son of Venus and Bacchus guardian of gardes threatens intruders with erect penis also associated with fertility Wall painting in House of Vettii Pompeii weighs his wealth against a bag of money 0 Priapus makes Encolpius impotent o ridiculed because he is a coward and a fool Satire 0 breakdown of former moral values o religion and morality o cultural changes 0 former slaves act like masters o nobility acting like fawning parasites Encolpius as Narrator 0 object of comic ridicule o commentary on moral failings of Rome not a political satire Trimalchio representative of the freedman class 0 4 features 0000 o boonsh o arrogant o illiterate but claims to be educated o superstitious and preoccupied with his own death has a bladder problem relieves himself in public ignorant doesn t know anything about mythology or history imperial pretensions appoint a freedman to guard my tomb staged a funeral so people would say nice things about him parallels to Jay Gatsby Fitzgerald was influenced by Satyricon saw Gatsby as social climber like Trimalchio o Fortunata wife of Trimalchio Fragmentary work believed we have the middle part of it may have started in Marseilles then a Greek city banquet takes place in Bay of Naples not one favorable view of a woman Ascyltus Encolpius s friend and rival Giton Encolpius s boyfriend male prostitute parody of Dido 0 Ancient Sexual Attitudes 0 two schools ofthought Essentialists sexuality determined by nature 111815 I Constructionists sexuality determined by culture 0 cultural attitudes not universal unchanging 0 Sexual categories roles I sex represented I power of submission I never a depiction of a relationship between equals I except Ovid s Art of Love Lecture 22 s lverv in ancient Rome The slavery system was never really questioned or challenged some philosophers considered slavery against nature was an accepted economic and social institution throughout the Mediterranean world s societies Definitions of slavery extreme example fo the inequity of positiions and classes of society where the ruling and wealthy classes exhibit control over the lower most texts in literature mention slavery ln Seneca s letter 47 said that one should treat slaves with justice and fairness but does not question morality of slavery itself Oxyrhynchus treasure trove of papyri documents in Egypt 0 legal document of the sale of a slave 0 during imperial rome o slave is nonreturnable except for epilepsy or external claims 0 sales tax 0 warranty Purchase of slave Fortunata o wax tablet o slave bought a slave limitations of evidence 0 lack of slave literature only documents by former slaves none who were slaves at the time they wrote chronology of evidence from 200 BCE to 200 CE geography of evidence mostly Roman Italy and Roman Egypt I papyri found in egypt but Egypt very different from teh rest of the Roman world Origins of Slavery o no beginning point 0 rule not the exception tot ancient society 0 developed and grew in close conjunction with not in opposition to establishment of individual liberties of Athens and Rome 0 as societies began to define the rights of the people they began to mark slaves out and identify them as not having these rights Rome as a Slave Economy 0 most of the labor done by slaves Late Republic and Empire influx of slaves into ltaly second century BCE 2 million slaves in Italy during Augustan era almost one third of the population Ownership 0 O O O 0 very common ubiquitous as hiring ulltime cleaning person or gardener or nanny anyone with independent wealth would first buy a slave even before buying a house having slaves was a mark of social status ex Cato the Elder 13 slaves I Horace 8 I urban praetor during Nero s time 400 How did one become a slave O O O captive of war servusLatin saved slave piracy birth home breeding Roman Slavery O 0 Labor 0 O 0 NOT racially or ethnically motivated anyone could be a slave I despite claims by Aristotle that slaves were biologically inferior I Romans did think themselves superior to other societies bc military conquerors of the world thought they were favored by the gods NOT necessarily a permanent condition I was an expectation that slaves that worked hard and saved their money would be freed I some only served for 7 years papyrus fragment two slaves died without a trade I must have died young every slave had a job every job done by a slave Peculium slave earnings from tips gifts commissions monthly allowances 0 up to the generosity of the owner who were motivated to pay their slaves so they would be motivated Manumission freeing a slave O slave when freed would still work for master may have same wages but may give more productivity more and more slaves freed at beginning of Augustan age 3 ways I act of the city official vindicta touched by the rod I enrolled in census censu I will testamento freed slaves when they died like George Washington I announcement in presence of friends inter amicos Trimalchio o former slave 0 very wealthy and successful 0 chapter 41 calls slave Bacchus but accidentally says liberwhich means free but is also the name of the god pileus liberty cap symbol of freed slave Difference between Greece and Rome in their attitudes towards slaves 0 rights an legal position of slaves after they were freed I Rome freed slave would citizen with some restrictions but their children would be completely free I Greece and others free but not a citizen couldn t participate in politics Augustan Legislation on Manumission o to limit the freeing of slaves o restrictions on number of slaves that could be freed by one person I never more than 100 slaves freed at a time I 210 slavesgt12 I 1030 slavesgt13 I etc minimum age of 30 for slave to be freed minimum age of 20 for person freeing slave slaves who were guilty of a crime served as a gladiator etc could not get full rights if freed 0 Created new class of freed without full political rights I to protect interests of the elite I Freedman class I formalized halfway status between slavery and full emancipation obsequium social obligation of a former slave to their master 0 patronclient relationship Divergent attitudes towards slavery o Cicero freed one of his slaves Tiro who preserved Clcero s legacy o ugly side agricultural slaves chained to the mill working in mines and quarries often condemned criminals I skeleton in Herculaneum with chain around his leg Hear very little of slave revolts o rioting broke out when a man was killed by one of his slaves and an archaic law was enforced 0 law if a master is killed in his house every slave in his household was to be killed 0 Debate in the Roman Senate over teh punishment o Gaius Cassius Longinus jurist descendant of the assassin and fighter for liberty argued to uphold the law 0 Senate decided to do what the law said and wanted to also deport the freedmen attached to the household but Nero intervened and stopped the latter from happening 0 The Spartacus Slave War 7371 BCE o Spartacus not born in italy maybe in northwestern Greece Thrace I believed to have been a deserted origins of gladiatorial revolt in Capua I Lentulus Batiatus owner of gladiatorial school I gladiators revolted killed and escaped small army formed within Italy Rome slow to react and unsuccessful Senate became alarmed Crassus led Roman Legions against Spartacus and finally defeated them Death of Spartacus I various accounts I 6000 men captured and crucified along the Appian Way Via Appia from Capua to Rome 112015 Lecture 23 Roman Enqineerinq Roads and Agueducts o Strabo Greek geographer historian and philosopher born in Pontus on Black Sea The Romans have provided for three things that the Greeks have neglected Roads Aqueducts for transporting water to urban civilizations Sewers I Cloaca Maxima Rome s oldest sewer system attributed to the Etruscan kings 0 00000 0 000 o ROADS o Provence area in France that was the first province held by Rome outside of Italy I Romans built a huge network of roads and the roads of today are based on that 0 Before Rome I Royal Road of Persian King Darius first highway for communication and trade I before that Egyptian road that was not public only for the pharaoh and priest I Silk Road or Route trade route land and sea extending over 4000 miles connected the far east to Europe there was contact between ancient Rome and China but not directly 0 Roman Road Via Latin word a path road or way of any size I Via mostly major roads out of the city I vicus street also neighborhood I clivus steep slope O O I scali steps I angiportus alley or passageway Naming of Streets most are unknown to us by the road itself 0 vicus longus long road 0 nora via new road 0 sacra via sacred road in forum most important in Rome proximity to place 0 clivus capitolinus o vicus apollinis apollo street by some event 0 vicus africanus Siculus Flaccus Roman Land surveyor 4 types of roads public roads the state maintained them had a builder Roman aristocrat who paid and might have it named after them officials in charge of taking care of them curator who would hire out private contractors o Appius Claudius Caecus impersonated by Cicero in speech to defame Clodia famous for building the Appian Way and building the first aqueduct o Diodorus Siculus historian who talked about how Caecus built the Appian Way 0 Augustus Curator of the roads Superintendent of Roads curator viarum local roads private roads Via Appia Queen of Roads still used today common for Romans to be buried alongside the road legally not supposed to be buried within the city limits Via Flaminia originally built in third Century repaired by Augustus Arch of Trajan triumphal arch built by emperor Trajan as entryway to his extension of the Appian Way Construction I lay out the proposed road by surveyors try to find straightest line I clear the rout of trees boulders etc I dig out a trench I cover the trench with sand and large slabs of stone I add a layer of pebbles and gravel pressed down to form hard surface I pave the road with stones cut into irregular polygon shapes I drainage ditches on either side of the road Milestones I stone markers that marked the distance of a Roman mile I A few feet shorter than our mile I granite marble or any local material O I Golden Mile centerpoint of Rome built by Augustus from which every road would extend out of the city symbolic monument column covered with gilt bronze All Roads Lead to Rome Rome was the centerpoint of the empire so this was kind of true 0 AQUEDUCTS O O Assyrian King Sennacherib built stone aqueduct to bring water from one of the canals to his capital city Nineveh I much earlierthan Rome Sextus Julius Frontinus praetor governor of Britain Water Commissioner of Aqueducts published official report in two books On Aqueducts of Rome topics neglect maintenance etc Appius Claudius Caecus built first Aqueduct his colleague retired before it was named the Hunter was the person who had to find the water source I Aqua Appia construction influenced by Etruscan water first test of Roman engineering primitive compared to the later built 10 other aqueducts in Rome Building I find the source of water I choose the best route sometimes not most direct I make the gradient high to low I clean the water so sediment and stones can fall to the bottom I distribute the water to the city Maintenance I almost as much work as building I 11 aqueducts served Rome I 250 million gallons per day city of 1m people I Aqueduct park in Rome Castellum Aquae reservoir I 2 purposes 0 clean the water by filtering it o distribute and deliver to the city I some water was public other private I located at highest point of the city near Vesuvian Gate in Pompeii I 3 channels 0 baths 0 city fountains 0 private residences Segovia Aqueduct in Northern Spain don t know when it was built inscription missing but anchors that held bronze letters say that it was built during the reign of the Emperor Domitian I transports water from Fuente Fria river in the mountains 100 feet tall both single and double arches supported by pillars o Pont Du Gard Roman aqueduct for city of Nimes in the south of France 160 feet at its highest one of the best preserved 31 miles from spring in the mountains to the city a lot of it is underground not direct route roughly Vshaped thought to have been Augustan built by Agrippa now dated to 4060 and reign of Claudius or Nero built from golden limestone in local quarry abandoned around 6th century became a toll bridge in the middle ages controlled by monks 3 levels of arches o Aqueducts and the fall of Rome sometimes cut by invaders neglected because of war civic disruptions and no longer maintained one of the reasons the population of Rome dropped in the Middle Ages restored by the Renaissance popes added a fountain Acqua VergineTrevi Fountain terminus point for the aqueduct built by Agrippa o toss a coin behind your back if you toss a second you ll meet someone attractive if you toss a third you ll marry them Mouth of Truth if you re a liar your hand won t come out sewer cap