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Week 13 Notes - Pre WWII & Post-WWII

by: Ashleigh Schneider

Week 13 Notes - Pre WWII & Post-WWII THFM 4600

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > Theatre > THFM 4600 > Week 13 Notes Pre WWII Post WWII
Ashleigh Schneider
GPA 3.4

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Detailed notes on the art and architecture of the Pre- and Post-WWII eras, including (but not limited to) Pop Art, Cubism, and Surrealism. Extremely thorough.
Period, Style, and Form
Margaret McCubbin
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh Schneider on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THFM 4600 at Bowling Green State University taught by Margaret McCubbin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Period, Style, and Form in Theatre at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
Period, Style, and Form – Week 13 Monday: Pre­World War II  Fauvism o Salon D’Automne  Organized in 1903 by people who were dissatisfied with conservative  Academy Salons  Strongest influence was the work of Van Gogh and Gauguin  Never any program or theory of this movement so by 1907 most artists  associated with it went on to other things  Matisse was the only one who kept exploring the implications and  potential of pure color  The work had a strong influence on the development of expressionism o Henri Matisse  Developed a style that was characterized by outlines and the use of pure  color to set up structure  Used an approach called “abstract color structure”  Colors do not merge but clash against one another and have no  allegiance to the actual colors of objects  Influenced by African art and the Cubists  May have introduced Picasso to African art  Later in life began to paint with grace and semi­realism  Color areas are flat  Expressionism o Expressionism: the free distortion of form and color through which a painter gives visual form to inner sensations or emotions o This movement originated in Germany and centered around the work of Northern  Europeans o Believed the act of painting was a release of physic energy and revealed states of  emotional crisis o Artists  Edvard Munch  Used curving lines in his work which are believed to point to Art  Nouveau influence  James Ensor   Stood apart from other artists of his time  Significantly influenced expressionist and surrealist painters of the  th 20  century  Paintings often feature figures in grotesque masks  Ernst Kirchner  One of the most typical of the German expressionists  Main theme is the tension and sinister viciousness of the city o Used slashing lines to express this  Oskar Kokoschka  Only loosely associated with the formal expressionist movement  His work reflected the decay and sensitivity of the end of the  Austrian Empire o Was offensive to the Crown Prince  Amedeo Modigliani  His work combines “the elongation of form, a wiry precision of  outline and a neurotic languor”  Was a very productive painter who worked in a repetitious style  Georges Rouault  A French painter who combined the colors and brushwork of the  Fauves with his training in stained glass  Created powerful images inspired by Catholic theology  Ernst Barlach  Based his work on German Romanesque  Smaller pieces are characterized by exaggerated realism and  emotional intensity  Sculpted single figures in strong, simple poses   Abstract Expressionism o Wassily Kandinsky  Painted the first totally non­representational picture in 1910  Believed a picture could be composed of simply color and line  Did not give his paintings titles; instead, gave them numbers or dates  His paintings take two forms  The open, improvisational type  The sharply defined geometric type o Stanton MacDonald­Wright  One of the founders of Synchronism in 1913  Was conceived as beautifully arranged pure colors  The first American movement to attract attention in Europe  Cubism o Created out of a painting, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon by Pablo Picasso o Analytical Cubism  The figure is shattered into prisms  Considered the fourth­dimension that represents depth or time  Requires a new system of presentation or distortion o Synthetic Cubism  Shapes of objects were used as the basis of improvisation and invention  Collage technique was created that combined real and painted elements  Representational o Part of the created image  Presented o Recognizable for their original role  Geometric Abstraction o Piet Mondrian  Solely interested in the relationships of line and color  Theories  All painting is composed of line and color  The plane surface is important to the physical and psychological  being of the painting and must be respected  The simpler the form, the more universal o The rectangle is the most universal of all  The purer the color, the more universal  Intended paintings to look mechanical  Futurists o Interested in the modern world o Some of the most successful of their pieces were sculptural o This movement ended with WWII  Dadaism o Founded by Jean Arp and Max Ernst after WWI o Was a “nihilistic art based on the despair of the aftermath of war” o There was no aesthetic since there is no reason in the world o Two things came out of this movement  Readymades: common objects turned into works of art  The idea that unconscious mechanisms operate according to the laws of  chance  This idea is, among other things, what ended Dadaism  Metaphysical Art/Surrealism o Had some of its origins in the works of the Dadaists o Had all the terrible reality of a nightmare and everything was vividly real o Artists  Giorgio de Chirico  One of the earliest of these artists  Produced his “enigma” pictures in 1910  Was considered the founder of the school of Surrealists  Marc Chagall  Was claimed by the Surrealists as a founder of their movement  His work was based on his memories of growing up in Russia  Salvador Dali  His earliest works used images from his own paranoid  hallucinations  Later images were more theoretical than personal  Was kicked out of the Surrealist movement in 1938  Joan Miro  Studied Cubism and believed in the undirected play of thought  Paul Klee  Fused Cubism with other forms of abstract art  Was both an Expressionist and Surrealist  Max Ernst  Also helped found the Surrealist group  His work had a whimsical irrationality that later became grotesque  Regionalists/Social Realists/Nationalists o A direct reaction to the work of the abstract artists o Chose to develop figurative art, but in different ways and for different reasons o Artists  Diego Rivera  One of the founders of the Mexican mural renaissance  Wanted to develop a national art that would revive Mexico’s  cultural traditions and serve as propaganda  Believed that the artist filled a place in the social order like civil  servants rather than independent individuals  Ash Can painters  Dedicated to genre subjects of city life  Reginald Marsh o Only portrayed the American urban scene  Post Ash­Can group  Went past the city and into the countryside  Observed people and customs with a touch of satiric acidity  Two most members of this group were Thomas Hart Benton and  Grant Wood  Sculpture o Sculptors  Constantin Brancusi  Does not fit into a specific movement  His work is both primeval and futuristic  Carved directly into limestone and marble to allow the materials to decide on the stylizations  Henry Moore  Influenced by African, Mexican, and the biomorphic art of the  surrealists  His style involves the relationship of the human form to landscape  Jacques Lipschitz  Russian engineer who moved to Paris in 1909 to do art  Began inventing sculptures using 3D cubism in 1914  Architecture o Chicago School  Devoted to the construction of major business buildings   Led to the skyscraper  Believed that the aesthetic content of a building will take care of itself if  the building is designed to serve its purpose to maximum efficiency  Frank Lloyd Wright  One of the most influential and innovative of the first architects  working on this idea  Did not consider himself a functionalist  Greatest influence was Japanese architecture  Created a style where the building fronts became a series of angled planes  Many of his designs are equally practical and designerly  Believed that each building was an individual problem to be solved by itself o Bauhaus School  Original belief was that there be no difference between artist and  craftsman  Looked for a juxtaposition of different materials  Main idea was to develop creativity rather than a specific style  International Style  Clear and recognizable o Dominance of glass in walls o Charles­Edouard Jeannerat  Took the name Le Corbusier  Strongly anti­decorative art and believed in standardization  Art Deco o Elaborate curves of Art Nouveau were rejected in favor of Cubist and rectilinear  lines  Patterns were circles and ovals with flowers in geometric patterns o Influences were Fauvism, Cubism, Aztec and Mayan architecture o Many of the furniture styles are similar to empire and consulate styles o Predominantly made up of artists interested in the aesthetic appearance of the  objects Wednesday: Post­WWII  About Post­WWII o Originally modern art was more popular with younger people  Pop culture had a quick and large effect on ideas and styles o Artists worked in three main approaches  Art with formalist concerns  Art with psychological and conceptual concerns  Art with social and political concerns  Abstract Expressionism o Arose as a world­wide movement as a response to psychological issues after the  defeat of totalitarianism in WWII o Was opposed in communist countries and began to deteriorate as the Cold War  grew stronger o Four out of the seven major leaders of this movement died by suicide o Today, many people are trying to assemble the parts of this movement o Two kinds of Abstract Expressionism  Energetic, gestural “action” painting  Abstract, tranquil “color field” painting o Artists  Jackson Pollack  Developed the drip painting style o In this style the paint is a source of energy  Displayed a total commitment to the act of painting  His intention was to produce the painting, not an event o The production of a piece is merely a technical  achievement, not an artistic statement  Creates a space that is ambiguous  Willem de Kooning  Emphasizes the Expressionist component at the expense of the  abstract  European originally but his work has an American quality o Reflects a structure and texture of great strength and power o Color Field painting  Artists  Hans Hofmann o Experimented for a while with drip painting but ended up  more color field o His work exhibits a powerful but serene balance of mass,  space and color  Mark Rothko o Early works were figurative  The edges are not totally defined and spatial  positions are ambiguous  Adolph Gottlieb o The transition point between the works of color field  painters o Uses vague, generalized forms but also cosmic symbols  thanks to Freud  Helen Frankenthaler o Used a the soak­stain technique  Drenched the fabric of a canvas with fluid paint o Was influenced by Jackson Pollack  Surrealist/Metaphysical Art o Artists  Georgia O’Keeffe  Less surrealistic and more metaphysical  Painted in her mature style before WWII but was considered to be  ahead of her time  Comes close to abstraction while using natural forms  Rene Magritte  Emphasized the analysis of pictorial language and the relationship  between man­made and natural objects  Delighted in creating images of disturbing ambiguity  Francis Bacon  Embraced an existential anguish as part of his work  Believed human figures exist perpetually stretched to the extreme  Pop Art o This movement began in England in the early 50s and was soon taken up by  Americans o A reaction to Abstract Expressionism  Figurative, “newer,” and based on American culture o Art must be low cost, mass produced, and big business  Most images have been processed in some way o Collage was used to explore the differences between representation and reality o Artists  Richard Hamilton  Originally trained in advertising media  Specifically interested in the way advertising shapes attitudes  Andy Warhol  The most famous (or infamous) member of the American Pop  artists  Fascinated by icons but used mechanical repetition  Roy Lichtenstein  Most famous works are based on the comic strip genre  Deliberately chose the most tawdry aspects of comics and creates  them with the technical appearance of the “printers dot matrix”  Jasper Johns  Is more of a conceptual artist and works mostly in the post­modern style  Specialized in manipulating generic symbols  Photorealism or Superrealism o A style of painting, although there is some sculpture o Subject matter is static and contemporary o Resemble photographs but not connected to naturalism  Choice of subject and angle is not the same as photography  Op Art o Short for “Optical”  Explores the optical effects of pattern o Was similar to Pop Art  Opposed the individual emotional response but denied representation  altogether o Predecessors are Balla and the Futurist movement  Kinetic Art o Three categories  Works of art that are static but appear to move or change  Objects that move at random without mechanical power  Works that are mechanically powered  Conceptual Art o The basis is that art that gives primacy to idea over craftsmanship o Associated with Performance Art, Land or Environment Art, and Minimal Art o Emphasizes the elimination of art objects as marketable commodities o The major concern of conceptual artists is information  Minimalist/Environmental o Primarily sculpture that involves strictly geometric forms o Reasserts the physical reality of the art object o Has a strong kinship to architecture  Other Modern Sculpture o Albert Giacometti  Created roughly modeled, emaciated figures who are a representation of  the human form seen from a distance  Tried to render the effect of great space as it presses around a figure  Architecture o International Style became so common that it became a parody of itself o Organic, biomorphic forms, and revival styles developed o Architects  Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson  Seagram Building o Compared to a piece of sculpture o Interior and exterior lighting were designed to make the  building effective day or night  Louis I. Kahn  Trained in the Beaux Arts style but his work has many  characteristics of the International style  Developed strategies to force people to work both inside and  outside  Minoru Yamasaki  Designed the a classic example of the International Style, the  World Trade Towers o Innovative technological structure  Frank Lloyd Wright  Built the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum  Used concrete like a sculptor would use clay  R. Buckminster Fuller  More concerned with use and function than with form  Designed the geodesic dome o This form is still commonly used in industrial design  His methods and materials made it possible to get rid of the steel  supporting columns of the International style  Felix Candela  Called “the Shell Builder” for his use of lightweight concrete roof  construction  Le Corbusier  Designed a series of buildings for India that were both primitive  and sophisticated  Jorn Utzon  Won a competition to design the Sydney Opera House o Although he quit the project and it was finished by others,  it is one of his finest pieces  Phillip Johnson  Introduced the European International style to the U.S.  Most recent work is considered Postmodernist  Postmodern o In this style artists have appropriated and manipulated styles from older art and  other cultures o Most Postmodern art exhibits a self­awareness and sense of humor o Deconstructivism  Originally developed as a mode of analytical thinking for understanding  the universe as a constantly shifting state of being


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