Popular in Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 115 at Pace University taught by Dr. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems in PHIL-Philosophy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Chapter 3 8 Fortunate to have abundance of food Supermarket has no season Food system 0 Those who produce cereal produce other products Mono culture 0 Growing one crop in one particular area America the poisoned o Disgust with EPA Our food isn t being regulated the way it should 0 357 a review Chemicals being persistent in the environment 0 Drinking wells in san Juan California A lot of our drinking water is contaminated with these pesticides o 50 Acid rain 0 So much pollution in air 0 Dead lakes I Smothered I No plant or animal life 0 Chesapeake bay I Area around it is intensely farmed Has harmed the bay Petrochemical industry 0 Pesticides are byproduct of this industry 0 4000 products that come from this industry 0 12 are pesticides Do we have a moral obligation to our future 0 Does nature have rights how do we protect those rights I He talks about sentience Big clash 0 We currently live that it doesn t consider the environment to have rights this would cause us to relook at what we are doing Pollution is a public evil 0 Harms ecosystems I Ex frog three legs Was affected by pollutants in water Our current industrial system is unsustainable and pollution is a public evil 0 Public I Our environment is not immobile and is a public commons as pollution travels pollution is every ones concern Pushing us to reevaluate our current system Anthropocentrism o All about people 0 We are center of concern 0 Has lead to genetic modi cation and industrialism 0 Based soley on human needs and wants Everything measured on a human value 0 We measure things based on human things I We look at sentience Does the animal have the same psych as us or biology Reevaluates our whole industrial model Chapter 3 9 Thesis 0 364 Main problem 0 Stems from the idea that species and ecosystems ought to be presser Holistic o Vales preservation of species communities or ecosystems lndividualistic 0 Individual organisms Only case in which species have experiences is that their member organisms attribution at the population level Animal liberationist would say that sperm whales are up to par with blue whales and both should be preserved but the fact that one species is endangered and the other is not doesn t make the rare individual more intruistically important 0 N amp m question Slippery slope o If it is morally permissible to destroy one species then it is morally permissible to destroy all species 0 Obviously it would Environmentalists should stop being so radical about the environment unless there is a true reason to become infatuated Last man argument 0 There are no values in the world nothing would have value since such rational could no longer obtain Chapter 40 Affirmative action 0 Action or policy facing those who tend to suffer from discrimination especially in relation to employment or education positive discrimination Executive order 10925 0 Based on skill instead of race creed color or national origin 0 Based first and foremost to give equal opportunity for employment when all applicants had equal skill 0 Had nothing to do with equal pay for equal work We need to include other factors because this isn t working 1964 civil rights act restated and broadened the affirmative action principle 0 Can t discriminate under any pretense 0 Had to have an inclusive employee register To adopt any police that continues to treat essentially irrelevant criteria as relevant is to share the guilt of those who discriminated originally Irrelevant criteria should be recognized as such and abandoned as soon as feasible 0 3 reasons 0 Thesis 0 Go with procedural I Because go with skill rather than race gender Chapter 41 Affirmative action 0 An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination especially in relation to unemployment or education 0 Thesis 0 In a morally perfect world it is no doubt true that if women and minorities were the most qualified they would be hired by virtue of their merits But this truth tells me nothing about how things are in this world It does not show that biases built up over decades and centuries do not operate in the favor of say white males over nonwhite males p3 99 o Discrimination against minorities and women which leads to a disadvantage for them in academia Ole Boy relationships 0 Relationships formed between minority teachers and white students is based entirely off of emotion with race or sex having no impact this causes white students to feel superior causing racism and the separation of different groups 0 What should happen according to Thomas I That relationship formed between teachers and students should be entirely emotional and never include a discrimination based on gender or race Role model argument page 398 o It is also the argument that I think is the least satisfactory not because women and minorities do not need role models everyone does but because as the argument is often presented it comes dangerously close to implying that about the only thing a black for instance can teach a white is how not to be a racist Intellectual affirmative action 0 Has to do with gratitude and nonverbal behavior 0 A lot of this racism still exists because many people make a verbal commitment to advocate equality but their actions don t support their claims 0 One of the reasons white people don t realize racism is because they say they re going to fix it but when it occurs they don t do anything about it or realize it because they re not experiencing it I Minorities realize it s not being xed more clearly because they re on the receiving end and deal with the pain In academia women and minorities are heavily discriminated against 0 Racism is unintentional 0 Lack of trust in minorities by students and teachers 0 Affirmative action is justified because it is used to overcome the social injustices that arise from this unintentional racism He says that in order for this to stop there needs t be gratitude and trust amongst all genders and races in academia 403 Says that it must be acknowledged that different groups shouldn t only trust each other Should be equality for everyone Chapter 42 Preferential treatment and reverse discrimination are prevalent in the hiring process of candidates looking to seek a position in a collegeuniversity Preferential treatment is a job preference that is given to someone who is of the right race ethnicity or gender Preferential treatment 0 Prevalent in hiring process of candidates looking 0 see a position in a college or university Job posting for a particular position at a college university will be open to only females or people of a minority group Advertisements for the job may seem as though position is open to all but it is really only open to a few groups of people Reverse Discrimination 0 Reverse Discrimination is the unfair treatment of members of majority groups resulting from preferential policies as in college admissions or employment intended to remedy earlier discrimination against minorities 0 People who are hiring shouldn t use reverse discrimination so that the hiring process remains fair 0 We believe we know what is best for our departments although we cannot articulate why it is best at the same time admitting that deep problems of potential injustice reverse discrimination for example haunt our favored guidelines pg 406 Advertising 0 Academic departments should inform job candidates that they are looking to hire either a woman or person 0 Be more forward say at beginning I They are geared toward all persons but the ending will have a message like Women and minoritygroup candidates are especially encouraged to apply The University of X is an equal opportunity affirmative action employer 406 They may include messages like this one 0 Be honest I Gives false hope otherwise Quotas o Is a numerical requirement for hiring people of a particular race religion or gender o The point is that departments commonly act in setting out their goals in a way that suggest department members willingly endorse what either is or has a strong family resemblance to a quota 406 0 There are inconsistencies and contradictions in peoples attitudes towards hiring women minority group members for a position at universities I Contradiction is because even though those people are hiring oppose the use of quotas they still want to hire women and minorities Quotas aren t bad 0 More diversity 0 Advertising should be straight forward I If want to hire female than should 0 They don t say it because people then say I U did it because u needed to ll a quota Comparison 0 He compares the moral embarrassment of university s recruiting efforts to assisted suicide 0 Like the quota system assisted suicide is not often spoken about to avoid issues 0 It is an embarrassment to medicine that a practice so widespread is underground little discussed never publically announced and generally condemned in the profession In academic appointments our recruitment embarrassment is even more difficult to explain 407 Thesis 0 Morally acceptable for an academic department to aim to hire a specific percentage of females and minorities o I believe these endeavors often are morally praiseworthy They are honest openinthedepartment fair attempts to shape the character of an institution for the better 408 o Advertisements should be more truthful about who they are looking to hire so they don t lead others interested in the position to believe they have a chance