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Chapter 22: Evolution

by: Crystal Boutwell

Chapter 22: Evolution BIOl 1020-003

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOl 1020-003 > Chapter 22 Evolution
Crystal Boutwell
GPA 3.82
Principles of Biology
Dr. Zhong

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Evolution, descent with modification, Charles Darwin, natural selection
Principles of Biology
Dr. Zhong
Class Notes
natural selection, evolution, charles darwin, charles, darwin, descent, with, modificatin, descent with modificatin, natural, selection, Chapter 22
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOl 1020-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
CHAPTER 222 DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION Endless forms most beautiful A 3 key observations about life 1 Organisms are suited for life in their environment 2 Many shared characteristics unity of life 3 Diversity of life B Charles Darwin The Origin of Species C Evolution descent with modification a change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation 1 Pattern of evolution facts and observation about the natural world 2 Process of evolution the mechanisms that produce the observations Coming to the idea of evolution A Aristotle 1 Viewed species as fixed unchanging 2 Scale of nature each form of life is a rung on a ladder B Linnaeus 17071778 1 Developed binomial format for naming species 2 Grouped species in broad similarities C Georges Cuvier 17691832 1 Created paleontology 2 Observed disappearance of species 3 Opposed evolution 4 Believed catastrophic events washed out species D James Hutton 1795 1 Earth s geological features are explained by gradual mechanisms E Charles Lyllel 17971875 1 Same mechanisms of the past are used in the present 2 Influenced that slow and subtle change produces biological change F Lamarck 1809 1 Use and disuse parts used a lot became stronger those not used deteriate 2 Inheritance of acquired characteristics organisms pass these modifications to their offspring 3Thought evolution happens because organisms have an innate drive to be more complex 4 Recognized match of organisms to environment G Darwin 1 Voyage of the Beagle 2 Species adaptation to the environment and survival 3 Origin of new species quot 4 Natural selection individuals with certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce more 5 Life s diversity is the product of evolution H The Origin of Species Three observations of life result from descent with modification b natural selection 1 Artificial Selection i Humans alter species by selecting and breeding individuals that posses desired traits 2 Natural Selection i Members of a population often vary in inherited traits ii All species produce more offspring than their environment can support iii Individuals with traits that give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing leave more offspring iv Unequal survival ability leads to accumulation of favorable traits in a population 3 Descent with Modification i Descent of all organisms from an ancestor long ago unity of life ii As organisms live in different habitats they accumulate diverse adaptations to fit the environment organisms match environments and diversity of life Scientific evidence of evolution A 4 types of data that explainback up evolution 1 Direct observations 2 Homology 3 Fossil Record 4 Biogeography B Direct Observations 1 Ex Beak length in soapberry insects i The bug s beak was the same length as the seeds in the plant When the plant started dying out and the bugs started living off of another plant their beaks shortened to the length of the new plant 2 Ex drug resistant bacteria i Bacteria surviving by adapting cell walls to resist enzymes in drugs C Homology 1 Homology similarity resulting from common ancestry 2 Homologous structures the same structural theme that has been adapted to different functions 3Vestigia structures remnants of features that served a function in the organism s ancestors 5Convergent evolution independent evolution of similar features in different lineages different ancestors i Adapted to different environments in similar ways D Fossil Record 1 Documents the pattern of evolution showing that past organisms differed from present day organisms and that many species have become extinct 2 Show evolutionary changes 3 Show origins of new groups of species E Biogeography 1 the scientific study of the geographic distributions of species 2 Influenced by continental drift Pangeaislands have plants and animals endemic found nowhere else but endemic species are closely related to other species at nearest mainland


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