Life Cycle Development - Week 13 Notes
Life Cycle Development - Week 13 Notes PSYC 2310
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Week 13 Life Cycle Development AGING amp INTELLIGENCE continued Teens amp adults in small New England village intelligence scores increase from age 18 to 22 then stabilize and start to decrease at age 26 Bailey Study of Terman s Children children of Terman s study followed well into adulthood from ages 2050 their Q scores increased Bailey 2quot I Study with NonGifted Children showed the same effect of increase in IQ scores with age Cross sectional data suggests decline in IQ scores Longitudinal data suggests more stability in IQ until around late adulthood knowledge of howto stuff like how to make a cake how to tie your shoes It s accumulated knowledge and it INCREASES with age patterns perceptual speed short term memory DECREASES with age Longitudinal study downfall attrition people drop out of the study Cross sectional study downfall cohort effect The number of words recognized is STABLE with age The number of words recalled DECREASES with age Task Showing Performance Loss with Age 1 Free recall of lists of unrelated words 2 Paired associate learning of unrelated word pairs 3 Recall of pictures 4 Memory for spatial location 5 Working memory tasks Effortful Processing Tasks Showing Little or No Performm with Age 1 Recognition tasks 2 Well learned facts 3 Implicit memory 4 Recency tasks Pathological Decline in Cognition Impaired Memory Impaired Intellect Impaired Judgement Impaired Orientation doesn t know where they are Exaggerated or Shallow Emotions refers to the decline in mental competence can be acute or insidious acute can be reversed because it could have been caused by a tumor and once removed the symptoms of dementia go away DEMENTIA Azheimer s Parkinson s MultiInfarct Dementia Acute Onset possibly by giving the wrong medication or from a tumor Chronic Onset disease amp is irreversible Alzheimer s is the most common cause of dementia degenerative disease of the brain kills a brain cells estimated to afflict 1 in 5 adults over age 65 by 2030 insidious progression eary sign 9 memory loss disease will destroy the entire brain it s not just a disease of memory Seems to have genetic component initia death of neurons producing acetylcholine by age 90 9 55 of all 1St degree relatives of Alzheimer s patients have the disease but only occurs in about 12 of Alzheimer s spouses Some detriments in again are normal fuid intelligence decreases and crystallized intelligence increases divided attention also becomes difficult as age increases Most deaths occur in adults age 65 and up before that it s called presenile dementia onset in middle adulthood about age 40 or 50 women are more likely to be diagnosed than men but females live longer so once you adjust for this it turns out that men are at higher risk Age 6574 death rate is 10 in every 100000 Age 7684 death rate is 64 in every 100K Age 85 death rate is 228 in every 100K NUN STUDY argest brain donor study of Alzheimer s in the world initiated in 1990 N678 nuns born between 18861916 most nuns joined the order called Sisters of Notre Dame by age 20 by 1995 median age of survivors was 85 N533 all shared common living experiences they fixed their living conditions and kept very descript medical records and such first 94 autopsies showed quotsenile plaques and nerve tangles increase in density in ages 7589 and then decrease after age 90 MPLCATON9 Alzheimer s is not a disease of age per se plaques originate in the hippocampus more educated nuns lived an average of 4 years longer which was twice the mortality rate in nuns with less than college education Werner s Syndrome occurs in adolescence amp early adulthood Progeria abnormal aging rare disease begins in childhood or even infancy more rare hair turns gray joints stiffen skin dries out cardiovascular system is like that of a 75 year old can die from age 2027 by way of heart attack or stroke menta competence is fine Aging Stereotype Threat amp Learned Helplessness Stereotype threat earned helplessness animal model depression in dogs elderly learned helplessness anecdotal reports research Martin Seligman studied learned helplessness developed animal model of depression escapable shock electrodes in one half of cage floor and dogs were able to jump over the small barrier to sit where there were no electrodes inescapable shock electrodes placed in all parts of cage floor dogs just whimpered sat down and accepted the shock animals were then placed into new cages with only half the floor covered in electrodes the dogs from the escapable shock group escaped from the shocking floor but the dogs from the inescapable shock group did nothing to try and escape to the electrodefree part of the new cage Ellen Langer Study Hypothesis helping may increase selfinduced dependence amp deteriorated performance Subjects N72 nursing home residents Mean age 78 Randomly assigned to one of three conditions to work on a jigsaw puzzle for 20 minutes 1st group assistant helped them work on the puzzle 2quot l group only encourage to work on the puzzle 3rel group no contact with assistant worked on puzzle alone Mean number of pieces found before giving up 9Helped group 88 9Encouraged group 98 9N0 contact group 96 Study 2 Langer amp Judith Rodin effects of enhanced personal responsibility on the health of the elderly sample9 nursing home patients ages 6590 47 patients in experimental condition 44 patients in control condition MANIPULATION Experimental manipulation they told the patients quotyou have the ability to do what you want and you have the influence to change it they were basically told they had choice to travel anywhere all over the nursing home and nobody would stop them Control manipulation they told these patients quotyou re PERMITTEDALLOWED to visit others on different floors assess at baseline and 3 week posttest Dependent measures assessed at baseline and 3 week posttest happiness amp activity level Self reports aertness interview genera improvement amp watching staff nurses ratings Results Happiness level in experimental group significantly higher than control Activity level significantly higher in experimental group Alertness significantly increased in experimental group General improvement significantly increased in experimental group Watching staff significantly higher in control group suggests that manipulation impacts nursing home patients patients who were still there were more sociable selfinitiating in activities amp more vigorous 18 months later expectations matter especially among the elderly experimental group seemed to live longer than control group
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