Week 14 ANT 102
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Australopithecus A Robustus Not our ancestors But didn t become extinct until about 1 million years ago Overlapped with Homo39s Sagittal crest there for extra area of muscle attachment to support huge jaw 5 Large zygomatic arches broad deep cheek bones to make room for chewing muscles B Africanus 1 Difference in niche to Robustus 2 Flat v prognathic muzzlelike face C South Africa become extinct 1 Gracile i Australopithecus Africanus ii Robustus D East Africa evolve into genus Homo 1 Gracile i Garhi ii Boisei Advanced austraopithecineseary homo A Homo habilis 1 Gracile Australopithecus but with small teeth ER 1813 2 Other species become extinct and we survive B Homo rudolfensis speciman ER 1470 1 Big brain big face big teeth C Homo ergaster ER 3733 1 Primitive homo erectus Homo erectus A Initial appearance in East Africa 19 million years ago Koobi For a Kenya Contemporary of late robust Australopithecines Expand into South Africa about 1618 million years ago and into EuropeAsialndonesia 1618 million years ago 5 Continued to spread into temperate zones 700000500000 years ago B Diet change 1 Change in cheek teeth due to change in diet to a more meat based diet C Brain size 1 Crania capacity i Erectine average of 1000 cm3 ii Eary erectines gt1 mya 850 cm3 iii Late erectines lt1 mya 1100 cm3 2 Brain case i Expanded compared to earlier humanslooks more human ii Foramen magnum is central iii Low braincase broadest at base of skull iv Low forehead brow ridges PWN PWF 3 Face i Reduced prognathism compared to australopithecines but more than modern humans ii Receding mandibular symphysis no chin because they had bigger teeth iii Prominent nose D Postcrania neck down 1 2 Body proportions are long and slender like modern humans adapting to tropical environment Nariokotome specimen kenya 16 mya 85 complete i Long and slender ii 5quot7 iii 130150 lbs iv Died young E Physiology 1 2 3 Body hair i No Sweating Skin pigmentation Gloger39s rule i Starting to look like modern human distribution F Technology 1 Oldowan 2618 mya 2 Acheulian IV i Hand ax ii Like a Swiss army knifedo a lot of different things Archaeology A Oldowan tool culture 1 2 4 5 6 B AC 1 JUN Name comes from Olduvai Gorge Tanzania 2618 mya Louis Leakey i First de ned Oldowan culture ii Earliest evidence of human tool making and working iii Associated with Australopiticines Crude stone tools pebble choppers and akes i These are not found where they occur naturally near water for erosion ii Because they are not found near water they are not naturally rounded by the water movement Processed animal bone cut marks impact fractures to remove bone marrow Bone toosgtdigging Construction of a chopper tool heulian 171100 mya Handaxe or biface i Like a large arrowhead vary in size though ii Flakes taken off all over the tool Wooden tools from Kalambo Falls Tanzania Fire Swartkrans South Africa i At least controlling it if not creating it Enhanced technology adaptation to more inhospitable conditions in Zhoukoudian China As technology increases humans can spread into different ecological zones C Heidelberg 700000500000 years ago started to spread into temperate zones 1 After homo erectus I ii iii iv v vi vii Viii 400000 years ago Expanded brain size cranial capacity is 1300 cm3 Expanded brain case maximum breadth is higher than erectus Parallel sided skull as opposed to homo erectus39 slanted or angled skull Still no chin Anterior teeth still large Body form possibly cold adapted in Europe but tropical in Africa Found in Africa Asia and Europe 2 Adaptation of skin pigments Because rickets again