NHM 101 Notes- Week 13
NHM 101 Notes- Week 13 NHM 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Weight Management Genetics Genetics determines a person s predisposition to obesity Excess Intake Sedentary lifestyle oPhysical activity and dietary pattern can minimize the genetic in uences Eating Pattern Limit energy intake Be realistic 250500 kcal per day reduction if overweight 5001000 kcal per day reduction if obese A weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds per week Low energy density foods oFoods containing water rich in fiber low in fat oAvoid added sugar Choose nutrient dense foods oFruits vegetables and whole grains Reduce portion sizes Orlistat Blocks the digestion and absorption of dietary fat and limits energy intake by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity Side effects Cramping Diarrhea Gas Stomach pain Reduced absorption of fatsoluble vitamins s mia Enhances the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine which suppresses appetite Side effects Increased heart rate and blood pressure Insomnia Dizziness Headache Surgery Surgery patients will have a pouch instead of a stomach It will be the size of an egg It will hold about a 12 cup of food The pouch restricts the amount of food patients can eat Underweight Health Risks Malnourishment Infertility Osteoporosis Weight Gain Strategies Energy dense foods Regular meals and extra snacks Juice and milk Strength training Physical Activity Physical activity oModerateintensity some increase in breathingheart rate 357 kcals per minute oVigorousintensity a large increase in breathingheart rate gt 7 kcals per minute Exercise Benefits Healthier body composition Improved bone density Lower risk of some types of cancers Lower risk of CVD DMZ depression 2010 Dietary Guidelines Increase physical activity Decrease time spent in sedentary activities ACSM 57 days of aerobic activity for at least 30 minutes 23 days of resistance exercise 27 days of stretching exercises Fuel Carbohydrate and Fat Build Protein Support energy metabolism and tissue building Vitamins and Minerals Carrier and removes waste Fluid Before Activity Goal Fill up glycogen stores During Activity Goal Maintain normal blood glucose levels or prevent a drastic drop in glycogen levels After Activity Goal Replenish glycogen stores Before activity Minimal protein needed During activity Minimal protein needed After activity Provide adequate protein to rebuild muscles and tissues Need to have adequate amount of vitamins and minerals to support the bodies functions Energy metabolism Tissue building Oxygen carrier Immunity Fight free radicals Before activity Ensure that individual is not on the path to dehydration During activity Remain hydrated After activity Replace uid lost Drink amount of uid lost in body weight What are the general recommendations for a pregame meal Plenty of uids Carbohydraterich foods Low in fat and fiber vBreads potatoes pasta and fruit juices What are the general recommendations for a postgame meal High in carbohydrate sports drinks fruit juices Moderate in protein Low in fat and fiber Dietary Supplements A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities 24 billion spent each year on supplements 1 out of 3 individuals takes a MVI Many others take a specific vitamin mineral supplement Most individuals self prescribe supplements Correct nutrient deficiencies Prevent diseases Individuals who omit certain foods Meet needs during life stages where needs are increased Infants VD Women of childbearing age and pregnant women folate and iron Elderly Vitamin 312 and Vitamin D Improve the body s defenses for people with prolonged illnesses extensive injuries or other severe stresses such as surgery Toxicity Marketing is often misleading Cure disease Enhance athletic performance Provide individuals with a false sense of security Evidence is insufficient for most dietary supplements First attempt to improve the diet to obtain the needed nutrients from foods If that is truly impossible then the person needs a multivitaminmineral supplement that supplies 50150 of the Daily Value for each nutrient USP US Pharmacopeia verification logo Avoid supplements providing more than the UL for any nutrient Avoid products with misleading claims Relieve stress Antioxidant from diets vs supplements FDA s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research CDER Covers Prescription and NonPrescription drugs Responsibility of drug company to submit evidence that drug is safe and effective CDER reviews study data and proposed labeling Typically takes years from initial application to drug being on the shelf Regulated by the FDA as foods Defined by the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act DSHEA of 1994 What does DSHEA say Nutrition labeling is required Labels may make health claims that are supported by significant scientific agreement Labels may claim to diagnose treat cure or relieve common symptoms but not a specific disease Labels may make structurefunction claims about the role a nutrient play in the body The manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the claims are truthful and not misleading All must include an FDA disclaimer oUnlike drugs supplements do not need to be proved safe and effective nor do they need the FDA s approval before being marketed oThere are standards for potency or dosage and requirements for providing warnings of potential side effects Do require good manufacturing practices but are not tested Rather than the manufacturers having to prove the safety of their products FDA must prove that a supplement poses a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury MVI Vitamin C Protein and Amino Acids Herbs Echinacea Ginseng Ginger Gingko biloba Yohimbe Supplements as Ergogenic Aids Substances or treatments that purportedly improve athletic performance above and beyond what is possible through training oCaffeine oCreatine oCarnitine
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