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Chapter 22

by: Koral Shah

Chapter 22 BIOLOGY  108 - 0001

Koral Shah

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General Biology I
Marilyn Yoder
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Koral Shah on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY  108 - 0001 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by Marilyn Yoder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at University of Missouri - Kansas City.

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Date Created: 11/20/15
Chapter 22 Descent With Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 22.1 The Darwinian Revolution Evolution: descent with modification Strata: superimposed layers of rock, compressing and preserving fossils Catastrophism: idea that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different than those operating in the present day Uniformitarianism: idea that mechanisms of change are constant over time Lamarck's Evolution Hypothesis... Use and Disuse: as a body part is used more, it grows bigger and stronger example: as a giraffe continues to stretch its neck farther, it grows longer Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics: an organism could pass these modifications to its offspring 22.2 Descent With Modification Darwin's Ideas... After graduating from Cambridge, Darwin ventured on a survey ship, The Beagle to observe uncharted areas of South America Adaptations: inherited characteristics of an organism that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments example: Galapagos finches originated in the same place, but diversified depending on what region they migrated to the change in environment affected their beak shape, depending on foods available Natural Selection: individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than others because of those traits On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published by Darwin explains three observations: the unity of life, the diversity of life, and the match between organisms and their environments Artificial Selection: human modification through selective breeding for desired traits result: few crops, livestock, and pets resemble their wild ancestors Darwin's Observations and Inferences... Observation 1: Members of a population often vary in their inherited traits Observation 2: All species can produce more offspring than their environment can support many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce Inference 1: Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing tend to leave more offspring than others Inference 2: The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations So we evolve, we get more and more awesome, and the weak die out. The Origin of Life... Cell Theory 1. Cells come from other cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function. 3. All living things are made of cells. Where did the first cell come from? 1. Simple organic molecules (amino acids, nitrogen bases, etc.) 2. Macromolecules (proteins/nucleic acids) 3. Protocells - membrane bound "droplets" 4. Self-replicating molecules Hypotheses... Probiotic Soup - the ocean before Earth sustained it as liquid water made up of CH4, H2, NH3 (could readily give electrons up) Extraterrestrial Hypothesis asteroids and comets brought carbon based molecules to Earth Deep Sea Vent Hypothesis underwater volcanoes release hydrogen which reduced N2 to NH3 Polymer Formation... first polymers formed on the surface of clay Protobiont: first non-living structure that evolved into cells 1. Membrane separates external from internal 2. Polymers that contain information 3. Polymers with enzymatic activity 4. Self-Replicating Liposomes: microspheres made of lipids RNA is the first Macromolecule Life on Earth Timeline... Earth Forms Simple Macromolecules Form Prokaryotes Evolve First Cyanobacteria (turns CO2 into O2) Eukaryotes Appear First Multicellular Organisms Cambrian Explosions (HUGE amount of variation with multicellular organisms) First Jawless Fish Ozone Forms Plants and Fungi Form Arthropods Form (exoskeleton creatures) Amphibians Appear (first spinal cords) Reptiles Evolve First Mammals (same time as dinosaurs) -rodent like creatures First Birds (evolved from dinosaurs) First Primates First Hominids (upright, two-feet-walking primates) *know life in water was present long before the ozone ../../Downloads/photo%20(7).PNG 22.3 Evidence For Evolution Fossils... organism remains and imprints of organisms on rocks and clay shed light on the origins of new groups of organisms Embryological... early in development, different organisms start out very similar, but diversify as they age Molecular... DNA evidence and gene expression similarities across species Biogeography... Earth is a series of plates that have moved and shifted over the generations these shifts create mountain formations and rift vallies example: continental drift from Pangea (the "super-continent") to our world today endemic: most island species are more closely related to species from the nearest mainland, not other islands of similar environmental conditions Direct Evolutionary Change... Examples: beak length in soapberry bugs changed over time to adapt to their food sources bacteria became resistant to anti-bacterial drugs over time Anatomical... Homologous Structures: organisms with similar anatomical structures, but those structures are used for different functions results from common ancestry divergent evolution Analogous Structures: organisms with similar functioning anatomy with very different structures different ancestry convergent evolution example: bird wing and fly wing - both used to fly, built very differently Vestigial Structures: structure that is present but has no function served an important purpose in organism's ancestors example: appendix, wisdom teeth, pelvic bones in snakes, etc. Evolutionary Tree...


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