psyc4220Week14Notes PSYC 4220
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
o PSYC4220 WEEK 14 NOTES 0 November 16 2015 Girls 0 Early maturation disadvantages 0 Less popular less focused on academics 0 Higher risk of depression anxiety and problem behaviors 0 Late maturation in girlsadvantage Impact of timing fades somewhat but may still have effects into early adulthood 0 Brain development 0 Continued pruning of unused synapses 0 Growth and myelination of stimulated neurons speeds up 0 Connections between areas of the brain strengthen o Maturation of the limbic system happens before maturation of the prefrontal cortex Emotional control not fully developed until early adu hood o Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters More sensitive to stressful pleasurable andor novel stimuli More sensitive to oxytocinmay help explain self consciousnessdesire to please peers Oxytocinbonding Brain development changing states of arousal o Circadian rhythm shiftsget sleepy later want to wake up later Still need 9 hours of sleep but often don t get that o If sleep deprived 0 Perform worse on cognitive tasks in the AM 0 Academic difficulties 0 Depression and emotional outbursts o More highrisk behaviors and auto accidents 0 Delaying start of school can help but not completely 0 Motor development 0 Boys and girls are equal in improvements until puberty Then boys continue to increase in strength skill and speed girls often level off or decline Why 0 Biological differences 0 Gender role socialization Girls who participate in sports during childhood and adolescence Increase in positive body image perceptions of physical competence positive masculine traits 0 Focus on what body CAN do 0 Assertiveness leader and con dence 0 Correlated with high selfesteem November 18 2015 Chapter 15 Cognitive Development in Adolescence Stages of cognitive development Formal Operations 12 and older 0 Can mentally manipulate abstract objectsconcepts Develop hypotheticodeductive reasoning can make hypotheses about objectsevents that aren t real Bigger picture approach what could be 0 Develop inductive reasoning ability to go from speci c observations to broad generalizations Pendulum problem Implications of formal operations 0 Ability to think abstractly and increases in metacognition thinking about thinkingbroader changes Richer understanding of people Ability to form identity Increased complexity of thought Ability to imagine hypothetical versions of reality can lead to confusion and rebellion against quotillogical rulesquot idealism o Adolescent egocentrism state of selfabsorption in which the world is viewed from one s own point of view Imaginary audience belief that everyone around is as interested in their thoughts and behaviors as they are Personal fable part of adolescent egocentrism that involves feeling special unique and invincible o Promotes risk taking behaviors 0 Research indicates that not all adults reach formal operations Ability to use formal operations is tied to schooling Most likely to show abstract thought on areas that are interestingrelevant to your life Argues against stagesbiological in uences All adults likely have the ability to use formal operations but may have to learn to do so through expenence Piagetonce we get to formal operations we no longer develop cognitively Postformal thought Emerging Adulthood and Beyond 0 Ways of thinking that are more complex than formal operational thinking Relativistic thinking realizing knowledge is subjective and relative Teens are absolutists there is only 1 truthcorrect solution 0 Adults may be relativists Students get more relativistic during college years Moral Development 0 Moral reasoning thinking process that occurs then we decide what is right or wrong 0 Kohlberg tested people by asking how they would respond to moral dilemmas Actual decision isn t as important as reasons why they made decision 0 Reason why is what determines stage 0 Developed stage theory of moral development 0 Level 1 Preconventional Morality 0 Rules are external rather than internalized Punishmentsrewards not conscience o What is right is what you can get away with what is personally satisfying 0 November 20 2015 0 Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment Orientation o Characterized by desire to avoid punishment 0 Intentions are ignored 0 Stage 2 Instrumental Hedonism o Characterized by desire to gain rewards or satisfy needs 0 Matters only if someone sees you 0 Level 2 Conventional Morality 0 Guided by internalized morals o Punishment rewards become more abstract Ex Are other people going to think I am a good person 0 Typically reached in early adolescence Most adults stay at this level Stage 3 quotGood boyquot or quotGood girlquot Morality What is right pleases others 0 quotmeaning wellquotbeing nice is valued intentions now considered seeking approval avoiding disapproval reinforces factor Stage 4 Authority amp SocialOrder Maintaining Morality Morality is associated with following the quotwill of societyquot re ected in the laws social norms Rigid sense of right and wrong based on law adopted Conforms to rules of authority laws concerned with upholding social order and doing one s own duty 0 Level 3 Postconventional Morality o Develops broadly de ned ethical principles not set by authorty Recognizes laws are not always moral Looks beyond authority to take perspective of all instead of one social group Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation One s conduct is de ned according to a quotsocial contractquot should be linked to common good not just focusing on bene t to self 0 People have basic rights that we must protect Laws should be democratic maximize welfare of all o If laws compromise basic human rights have moral obligation to change law Stage 6 Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience 0 quotrightquot and wrong based on selfgenerated principles 0 principles adhered to regardless of consequence to individuals 0 put lives on the line for principles 0 value principles more than their own lives 0 so rare and hard to determine Kohlberg stopped looking at it o Is moral reasoning related to moral behavior 0 Not in early childhood 0 Moderately related after early childhood Kohlberg used dilemmas to determine level of morality of students 0 Then tempted them to cheat o Preconventional morals 70 cheated 0 Conventional morals 55 cheated o Postconventional 15 cheated o Criticisms of Kohlberg 0 Western bias Democratic laws 0 Gender bias Towards men 0 Thinking logically abstract principles 0 Ways men reason
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