HSTA 255 Notes 16 November 2015
HSTA 255 Notes 16 November 2015 HSTA 255 - 01
University of Memphis
Popular in Montana History
HSTA 255 - 01
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Popular in History
HSTA 101H - 00
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
World War II and Montana 16 November 2015 ntroduction World War II s Impact on Montana A WWII was most transformative event of the 20th century for the US as a whole but not for Montana 1 The West as a region was transformed a Gerald Nash wrote a book about the West barely mentioned MT 2 When war ended in 1945 T was about the same as it was in 1941 except the fact that the depression era was now over B Key point MT economy and population was not transformed by WWII II Montana s Famous Dissenters A Burton K Wheeler a December 1940 Great Britain alone was fighting Nazi Germany Axis i Was running out of moneysupplies ii Neutrality laws forbade US from helping nations engaged in war 1 US will lend to Britain the suppliestroops it needs 2 US is an quotarsenal of democracy a Fighting without being involved in the war itself b Wheeler recognized the lendlease policy would push US towards the war i Lending supplies would lead to lending troops c December 31 1940 Wheeler gave speech on national radio i quotthe New Deal s AAA foreign policy it will plow under every fourth American boy 1 Alluded to AAA in 1933 plowing under crops to stop them from growing as Americans were still going hungry 2 Roosevelt called it the rottenest thing to be said about American politics in a generation d Wheeler ended up being right about the lendlease policy e After the bombing of Pearl Harbor Wheeler began to support the war B Jeanette Rankin a When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor she was in House of Representatives for Montana first woman i Was only vote against war was committed pacifist 1 381 votes for yes 1 vote for no ii quotAs a woman I can t go to war and I refuse to send anyone else iii Ended up getting death threats had to have police protection 1 Was referred to as quotJapanette Rankin III Montana Soldiers in Combat A Soldiers go off to war a About 57000 Montanans served in the military during WWII i 10 of state s total population ii One of the highest percentages in the US b One of the highest casualty rates in the nation i 1500 deaths during the war c Native Americans throughout the nation served as higher population than any other social group in the nation i About 10 Native Americans served in the military ii Plain indians understood their experience fighting in the war as 1 A way to achieve status Joe Medicine Crow 2 An opportunity as a rite of passage taken away in the late 19th century 3 To connect themselves with the tradition and culture of their people historically 4 A demonstration of patriotism and loyalty to the US iii 50 million bought in warbonds if they were not fighting 1 Again larger percentage of its income than other social groups B Joe Medicine Crow a Born near Lodgegrass MT in 1913 b Was getting college degree in anthropology when WWII began c Was trained as a warrior with the Crow tribe d Wanted to become a chief completed all the requirements while at war i Touch an enemy ii Take an enemy s weapon iii Steal an enemy s horse iv Lead a successful war party e Found himself a greater part of the United States i A prestigious citizen C Famous regiments 1 Montana 163rd National Guard a The quotSheepherdersquot i Encountered some of the toughest fights in the war ii Fought in the Pacific against Japan different from Europe a Remote places away from base camps and supplies b Soldiers rarely taken captive they were to be torturedkilled a Part ofJapanese culture dishonorable to surrender Fought to the death c People would rather kill themselves than be taken captive d Fighting often resorted to handtohand combat 2 Devil s Brigade a The 1st Special Service Force i Winter Weather combat ii Not necessarily Montanans but trained in Montana b Were trained to fight Germans in Norway ended up fighting up the spine of Italy c German adversaries gave them the name quotDevil s Brigade i Would leave cards on dead German soldiers a quotThe Worst is Yet to Come d Movie made on them in 1963 IV Montana Homefront A Ends the Depression Era a Montana finally experienced sustained prosperity during war and postwar penod i Agricultural economy stabilizes 1 From 19411948 farm income doubles a Wet weather cycle returns high crop yields b High crop prices due to international shortage of food stuffs ii Industries 1 Timber and mining were crucial to wartime a Lumber mills return to full capacity b Anaconda Mining Company i Copper lead zinc mined as much as possible 2 Oilnatural gas industry began in 19105 slumped during 19305 a Prospered during the war due to need of energy B No new industries a Means Montana benefitted less than other Western States i WA CA OR UT etc 1 Nuclear research centers steel mills airplane manufacturing plants etc b During postwar period the newer industries were engines of growth for these other states i Drove prosperity that Montana did not get 1 Became one of the poorest states in the nation C Out Migration a More people left during war years b 90000 in total left Montana i 55000 left to enter military ii 35000 left for economic reasons 1 Better economic opportunities higher paying jobs elsewhere 2 People in their prime leaving for places like the new industries of the Western states D Women Working a 16 million people in armed services vast majority men i Employers then needed to hire women to keep economy operating at maximum capacity b Women now finding quotmen s work i Laborjobs blue collar industrial occupations ii Anaconda Company hired 100 women to replace its men 1 Published periodical called quotCopper Commando a Showed women on the covers handling quotphalliclike objects i US believed their femininity would be eroded tried to present women workers as not losing their womanhood iii Symbolicallyimportant iv After the war ended should have led to significant changes of women in the US 1 Now shown as capable of doing quotmen s work 2 Women are instead laid off jobs reopened to men a Reassertion of domesticity the women s place is in the home b 19705 2nOI wave feminism V Misc Topics A East Base B nternment at Fort Missoula