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Immigration and Exclusion

by: Erica Kugler

Immigration and Exclusion HY 325-001

Erica Kugler
GPA 4.0
US World Power to 1898
Dr. Steinbock-Pratt

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Notes over Immigration and Exclusion (Chinese Exclusion Act)
US World Power to 1898
Dr. Steinbock-Pratt
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
New Immigration and Exclusion Immigration and Questions of Race 0 Question of immigration and exclusion national movement to decide who cancan t enter US 0 18301850 migration wave from Northern and Western Europe Irish and Germans 0 Rise of Nativism and KnowNothing Party 0 End of Civil War industrialization gt increase in factories increase in labor demand 0 Industrialization urbanization and migration all intertwined 0 Labor pool changes immigrant men and women made up majority of labor pool 0 Previously USborn lower class citizens were majority of labor pool 0 Migrants came to US to escape unrest in their home countries and for econjob opportunities 0 Immigration was underwritten by the Industrial Revolution 0 Steam engines allowed faster transAtlantic travel gt more immigrants could come over 0 Increase in factories more production need for more labor to run machines 0 Immigration was underwritten by urbanization 0 As migrants arrived they congregated in cities and created ethnic neighborhoods 0 Most migrants were temporary 0 Meaning they came to US to work for a few years earn money and then go back home 0 Types of migrants South and Eastern Europe 0 Russian Jews gt escape pogroms in Russia 0 Italians gt unification of Italy political unrest poverty in southern Italy 0 In general postCivil War immigrants were from SE Europe and Asia were non Protestant Catholic or Orthodox or Asian religion and were nonwhite or kindof white ie Southern and Eastern Europeans I Because these immigrants didn t conform to traditional Americanism as they were not white not Protestant they were seen as being dirtycriminalbackwards people of humanity o 2 views of effect of immigration on US optimistic pessimistic o Optimistic peace harmony share cultures 0 Pessimistic chaos disorder migrants as threat to US culture and politics 0 Use of anthropology to study past civilizationspeople to create and justify racial hierarchy o Pseudoscience to justify racism and racial supremacy of whites over nonwhites 0 Social Darwinism apply Darwin s theory of evolution and survival of the fittest to class division 0 Societal progress is achieved through the sustaining of strong races and elimination of weaker races 0 Used to justify social class divisions and why some people are rich while others are poor 0 Status in society class standing was result of your character as defined by evolution I Rich better moral strong hardworking deserve to be rich I Poor lazy bad deserve to be poor I Economic differences in society were result of differences in character 0 Eugenics gt improve the gene pool via reproduction manipulation o Formed out of Social Darwinism 0 Ex forced sterilization of the poor o whiteness people began to question what whiteness meant and what constituted whiteness o This arose out of fact that SouthEastern Europeans were kind of white 0 1790 naturalization law if free and white then you can be a naturalized US citizen I Granted legal whiteness but not culturalsocial whiteness I Legal whiteness further developedextended by court cases 0 In re Ah Yup 1878 case declared Asians ineligible for naturalization o Assimilation was possible for those who looked white Southern Eastern Europeans versus those who clearly weren t white Asians I Idea of knowitwhenIseeit whiteness 0 Irish contextually white whiteness conferred on them based on where they were and what other immigrants they competed with I Ex Irish on East Coast were majority of immigrants to native white Americans tried to social isolate them from claiming full whiteness I Ex Irish on Pacific Coast were overshadowed by Asian immigrants Because Americans held a prejudice more toward the Asians because they were non whites Irish were considered to be white I Overall the context or situation the Irish found themselves in determined their whiteness o Italians and Greeks LouisianaSouth I Italians in South were discriminated against bc they took up farm laborjobs 0 Farm jobs associated with black laborers to by working in these occupations Italians were group with blacks as being a group to be socially excluded excluded via nonwhiteness disenfranchisement 0 White Workingman s Party I Partyunion for whites exclusively I President Denis Kearney o Anthropological whiteness I Blumenbach skull measurements 0 Idea that race is a biological fact and can be determined by biology o Blumenbach created categories of races based on skull sizes Chinese Exclusion Act 0 CA gold rush increase in Chinese immigrants gt rise of Chinatowns and Chinese laborers 0 California led the US in discrimination policies against the Chinese 0 Discrimination polities education I 1884 Tape Case 0 Mamie Tape was an Asian student who wasn t allowed to attend a white school due to Asian ancestry o Sued CA Board of Education and won 0 Decision Mamie couldn t be denied entrance to white school I Postcase CA Board of Edu created segregated school system 0 White schools and Chinese schools Oriental Schools 0 Yellow Peril idea that Asians represented a threat to US politics and culture Key Words 0 Asians seen as competitive steal jobs from whites unfree labor I Unfree labor Coolie Chinese laborer in bonded labor 0 Most Chinese laborers in US were NOT coolies Asians seen as a pestilencedisease that was spreading over the US I Derogatory term heathen chinee Nativism and antiAsian sentiment I LA Chinatown Massacre whites attacked and killed Chinese 1875 legislation passed that was the 1St law restricting immigration I Prevent undesirables from entering US 0 undesirables coolies bonded labor prostitutes 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act gt aimed to exclude Chinese laborers I 1st time a law was passed that targeted one specific group I Act expanded in 1892 to encompass all Chinese Impact of immigration restriction legislation I Targeted Chinese and not Europeans o Targeting of one specific group 0 Showed that Europeans were viewed more favorably than Chinese because Europeans were more white and closer to US politicsculture than the Chinese 0 Social Darwinism o Eugenics o Whitish 0 Denis Kearney 0 White Workingman s Party 0 Blumenbach Schema o In Re Ah Yup o Mamie Tape 0 Oriental School 0 LA Chinatown Massacre o Coolie 0 Yellow Peril o Bret Harte o quotHeathen Chinee o Page Act 0 Chinese Exclusion Act


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