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HSTA 101H 16-20 November Notes

by: Rachel Notetaker

HSTA 101H 16-20 November Notes HSTA 101H - 00

Marketplace > University of Montana > History > HSTA 101H - 00 > HSTA 101H 16 20 November Notes
Rachel Notetaker
University of Memphis
GPA 4.0
American History I
Kyle G. Volk (P)

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About this Document

This week's worth of notes goes through radical abolitionism to the rise of American democracy and ends with slavery and the slave trade in the Antebellum south
American History I
Kyle G. Volk (P)
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 101H - 00 at University of Montana taught by Kyle G. Volk (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see American History I in History at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
Radical Abolitionists 16 November 2015 1 September 1829 David Walker free slave came to Boston a Wrote 76 page book called quotAppeal to Colored Citizens of the World i Called for violent uprising to slaves b Became one of the most dangerous men in America c Had bounties on his head i 3000 if dead ii 10000 if alive iii Turned up dead in the streets of Boston murderer never found d Writings began a chain of events in slaveryradical abolitionism 2 Radical Abolitionism critical turning point on the road to Civil War a Outgrowth of quotage of reform i Middle class moral reforms to keep themselves busy b Reshaped debate on slavery c Morality of slavery and race prejudice questioned d One could be antislavery without being a radical abolitionist 3 Early 19th century slavery a Legacies of revolutionary period diffusionism etc b Elite whites of upper south remain interested in slavery i Little concern for slaves themselves not advocating for racial equality ii Ending slavery was a threat to white southerners and the white south 1 Rebellion from slaves killing whites 2 Souther lag retardingslowing down economic growthprogress iii Gradual emancipation and monetary compensation 1 Concerned with property rights of white men 4 Colonization or the quotBack to Africa Movement a Idea that free blacks and slaves should be exported out of the country b Believed race conflict was inevitable racial quality was ridiculous i Blacks naturally inferior ii Blacks made bad citizensworkers 1 Wouldn t work without fear of lashslavery c American Colonization Society 1816 i Madison Henry Clay John Marshall etc were supporters ii Colony of Liberia founded in 1824 in Africa 1 12000 former slaves resettled there in 1860 a out of 4 million slaves in the US at the time iii Lincoln also a supporter up until 1862 5 Toward radical abolition a Black abolitionist activity 18205 i Anticolonization 1 US was the homeland had no connections in foreign Africa ii By 1830 there were at least 50 societies in America b Walker s Appeal see above i SIGNIFICANCE 1 Circulated the idea of a violent overthrow of slavery 2 Was a culmination of a generation of black thinking a Demonstrated thought of northern black societies 3 Denounced slavery as an immoral outrage a White racism b Hypocrisy of American Christians 4 Demanded immediate emancipation without colonization a Radical because it wasn t gradual abolition 5 Showed that black men were not naturally inferior a Blacks had as much claim to the nation as whites b Racial equality c White embrace of radical abolition i Garrison Birming etc ii Ideal was immediate unconditional uncompromised emancipation without emancipation iii Recognized white hypocrisy 6 Creating a movement a William Lloyd Garrison early leader of radical abolitionist movement i Launched the abolitionist press The Liberator 18311865 1 Newspaper was controversial because it was radical 2 quotBreak the conspiracy of silence ii quotI will be as harsh as truth and uncompromising as justice b Organizations and Associations i American AntiSlavery Society 1833 1 Started with 62 people including 4 women and 3 blacks 2 By 1840 had 200k members and 2k societies in north ii Declarations of sentiments 1 quotslaveholding is a heinous crime in the sight of God 7 Platform of antislavery societies a Immediate emancipation b Slavery is a sin slaveholding is immoral i Influence of 2nOI Great Awakening ii It s notjust an individual sin but a national sin c Anticolonization d Call for racial equality i Civil and legal equality ii quotAm I not a man and a brother e Rejection of violence embrace of moral suasion i Only thing opposing Walker s ideals ii Needed to convince the public of slavery s sinfulness f Use of propaganda i Communications 1 Almanacs newspapers kids books songs ii Print revolution 1 Steam powered printing press worked to their advantage iii Focused on the image of the quotsuffering slave iv Slave narratives Most important type of propaganda 1 Over 100 narratives published in 1840518505 including Douglass 2 1st hand accounts written by former slaves 3 Key themes expressed in the books a Violence and abuse sexual physical emotional b Breakup of families and friends c Impact of slavery on white southerners 4 Showed the intelligence of black Americans a Countered stereotypes of natural inferioritydocility b Black embrace of middle class values i Industrious capable workers ii Religious iii Valued education 8 Major resistance of radical abolition a Myth that all northerners were radical b Beyond the south northern resistance as well c North remains hostile to radical abolition i Abolitionists were a decided minority d quotIt would take a war to end slavery The Rise of American Democracy 18 November 2015 1 Alexis de Tocqueville came to the US from France in 1831 a Came to study the US prison system for the French government b Wrote quotDemocracy in America in 1835 i Outsider perspective of American culture ii quotPeople reign over the American political world as God rules over the universe iii Believed the principle of Majority Rule was so powerful the essence of American politics 1 Compared the American founders who thought democracy was dangerous like the mob rule a By the mid 19th century most Americans were proud of Democracy 2 Transformation in political life in the US a Broadening electorate more voters i 1790 6070 of white men could vote ii 1850 nearly universal white male suffrage b Rising roles of political participation voter turnout i 1790 eligible voters participating 25 ii 1850 3 regularly voting 75 c Transformation of the American electorate i Rapid geographicsocioeconomic shifts 1 King cotton the market economy westward expansion etc ii Voting rights controlled largely by the states 1 From 17901830 every state revised its constitution most removing the property requirement for voting a Maryland in 1802 Massachusetts in 1821 New York in 1850 Virginia the last of the old states in 1850 b Market society transformed the idea of property i Static fixed piece of land Vs dynamic ii Land Vs capital stocks securities etc iii quotCity Democracy 1 growth of laboring class artisans small merchants shopkeepers 2 wage workers didn t actually own property were a renting class a Gave reason to remove the property requirement for voters iv quotCountry democracy 1 Rise of Western Farmers a Smaller farms didn t always meet the former property requirements d Shrinking electorate men who fully participated in socioeconomic life but not political life i Ineligible voters pushed for suffrage 1 Rise of universal WHITE MALE suffrage 2 Began locally Example Baltimore 3 Efforts fueled expansion of number of voters ii Not a simple progressive or triumphant story not a complete victory 1 In 1790 there were few racial barriers to voting a Must be a free man b Property requirement twice what is was for white men c Backlash to radical abolitionist movement 2 By 1855 only 5 states allowed black men to vote a MA NH ME VT R b Only 4 of free black men population in those states 3 Transformations in American political culture a In 18305 emergence of quotsecond party system i Authentic twoparty politics battling between party 1 and party 2 b From quotdeferential politics to quotmass politics c Presidential elections of 1824 1828 1840 i 1824 Jackson V Adams V Clay V Crawford V Calhoun 1 First three were most important candidates 2 Politics of Deference a Candidates didn t runcampaign for office they stood for it b quotI m available to serve if you need me attitude Only the best of men nominated themselves for office i Jackson didn t fit this mold From TN low status birth not a polished gentleman liked drinking and race horses 3 Jackson won 43 popular vote 99 electoral votes but not majority a House of representatives to decide election head was Clay 4 quotThe Corrupt Bargain a Clay supported Adams for presidency in exchange for a spot in congress b Adams won presidency on this Jackson was furious ii 1828 Jackson V Adams 1 Jackson gets support from Martin Van Buren a Began the idea of Mass Politics i Political campaign not standing for office ii Actively seeking out supportvotes b Together they form the modern quotDemocratic Party 2 Jackson wins in a landslide victory 17884 electoral votes a Triumph of majority rule 3 Everyday people brought into politics not just elite a quotThe reign of King Mob Justice Story Jackson dissenter iii 1848 Van Buren V Harrison 1 Rise of the WHIG Party a AntiJackson party b Mostly former federalist elites 2 Harrison was a warhero Indian fighter in Ohio country a quotThe Log Cabin and Cider Campaign i Brings Harrison down to the people 3 Harrison wins dies 30 days later Slavery and the Slave Market 20 November 2015 1 Antebellum south the world39s largest slave society a Population of4 million slaves b Myth of the plantation glory i Majestic plantations elegant mansions aristocratic society etc ii Made up less than 1 of the white population 2 Southern politics and law a Andrew Jackson TN and John Calhoun SC b Power of law behind white masterswhite southerners not sympathetic to slaves i Gave absolute power over slaves slavery was a product of government 3 Modes of master controlling the labor force a Paternalism the dominant model between the relationship of master and slave i White master was to be viewed as a father to the slaves 1 Regardless of the slave39s age 2 Slaves needed constant caresupervision by whites ii Slaves as extension of the white family iii Whites were quotbenevolent mastersquot 1 Treated their slaves well 2 Master cares for and protects his slaves a In return slaves owe him hard work and obedience 4 Slaves in the fields a Labor regimes working hard to maximize productivity i Task labor a slave was given a dailyjob 1 They had some autonomy as to how they did it a Get it all done in the morning and have afternoon off b Work consistently throughout the day c Save it all until the end of the day 2 You work until yourjob is done ii Gang labor large numbers of slaves put to work the same task 1 Worked morning until night under threat of the whip 2 Productivity was measured at the end of the day b Physical coercion i quotFear of the lashquot whipping ii Followed by logicalemotionalsexual coercion 1 Rape wasn39t too uncommon 2 Slaveholders seen as racial amalgamators a Used as an argument against them by abolitionists b More mixedrace children were being born in the south c quotBlacks can39t be less than us if you39re having sex with themquot 5 The slave market a The quotChattel Principlequot i idea that the heart of slavery is about commodifying human beings ii Chattel any property that isn39t land pigs cars people etc iii Viewed human beings as property iv Commodification turning humans into something to be boughtsold b Slaves were ranked in value among the animals were degraded i quotI saw more clearly than ever the brutalizing effects of slaveryquot Frederick Douglass ii White men inspected bodies and minds of slaves 1 Gaged the capacity of slave women to produce more children 2 looked at physical strength competency disease etc c The domestic slave trade was seen as the quotsecond middle passagequot i 1 million slaves relocated from upper south to deep south from 1790 1860 ii Big business cotton and the slave trade were a significant portion of the south39s economy 1 Not just benefitting slave traders and slave owners a b c d Tth Banks profited from interest loans given to buy slaves Lawyers profit in terms of ownership feuds Insurance companies slave had insurance Doctors farmers store keepers i Slaves needed medical care food clothing NewspapersPrinters slave ads State local government taxed sale of slaves i theoretically all of the south benefits based on the use of taxes gained from the salve trade iii Twice as many slaves were sold locally 1 23 of a million were sold between neighbors iv The state government sold slaves when the owner declared bankruptcy or died without a will d During this period over 2 million slaves were sold i All of the white south profited slaveholders and nonslaveholders 6 Southern market revolution a Not the same as the northern market revolution i Longdistance trade of agriculturalindustrial goods b The quotslave traderquot i Businessmen trading in humans ii Vital to southern economy middlemen critical merchants iii Speculators in capitalist marketplace c May or may not have been a capitalist society i Reliance on slave labor ii Spiritethos of capitalism in slave market


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