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Week 13 Lecture Notes

by: AJ Ponte

Week 13 Lecture Notes PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
General Psychology
Ines Segert

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About this Document

Topics covered in these notes include dissonance, bystander intervention model, ingroup/outgroup bias.
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
Week 13 Lecture Notes Attitudes 0 attitudes that a person can report 0 attitudes that in uence a person s feelings and behaviors at an unconscious level 0 How are they formed 0 Exposure 0 Condition operant and classical o Socialization Cognitive Dissonance 0 An uncomfortable mental state due to a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior 0 Ex Smoking and running people will justify their contradicting actions Rationalize away the con ict Dissonance can lead to attitude change Festinger and Carlsmith A study was done where participants had to perform an extremely boring task moving pegs on a peg board and then when asked tell other participants how enjoyable the activity was 0 One group was paid 20 and the other only 1 0 Results 0 1 group said it was more interesting than the 20 group 0 20 group I Felt a con ict between attitude and behavior when they told others the boring task was exciting No dissonance Could rationalize behavior away because 20 was a reasonable explanation to lie 0 1 group I Felt a con ict between attitude and behavior when they told others the boring task was exciting Produced dissonance Could NOT rationalize behavior so they changed their attitudes and rated the activity more exciting than the 20 group did Insuf cient justi cation 0 A way to change attitudes by changing behaviors rst 0 Use as few incentives as possible Postdecisional Dissonance Week 13 Lecture Notes 0 Automatic process that we do all the time We tend to focus on positive aspects of the chosen option and the negative aspects of the nonchosen option Validates our decisions 0 Healthy people and amnesic patients do this 0 Ex HM would do this without knowing he was doing it Justifying Effort Dissonance produced when people put themselves through pain embarrassment or discomfort to join a group 0 Resolve the dissonance in ate the importance of the group and their commitment to it 0 Ex When fraternities haze their pledges but the pledges stay in it until they are initiated Bystander Apathy the failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need Bystander Intervention Model 0 quotBefore an individual can decide to intervene in an emergency he must implicitly or explicitly take several stepsquot Darley Step 1 notice the event Step 2 interpret it as an emergency 0 Step3 decide that it is his personal responsibility to act Good Samaritan Study Studies the first step to the bystander intervention model People were asked to give a seminar about good Samaritans These people were then called being told they were late for their seminar 0 A confederate actor in need was placed on the path the person was taking to go give the seminar 0 Most subjects while in a hurry did not even notice let alone help the person in need Smoke Filled Room Study 0 Studies the second step to the bystander intervention model 0 Groups 0 One subject alone in a waiting room lling out a questioner o 3 subjects in the waiting room 0 1 real subject and confederates in the waiting room Week 13 Lecture Notes 0 Scenario the room began to ll up with smoke and in some trials the confederates would act afraid 0 Results 0 Subject alone would seek help 80 of the time o 3 subjects 40 of the time o Confederates and 1 subject 1015 Communication Study 0 Studies the third step of the bystander intervention model Subjects were recruited for a communication study and placed in individual rooms and had to communicate to others over an intercom and then an emergency happened with one of the other subjects a confederatethe victim Groups 0 1 subject the victim o 1 subject 1 confederate victim o 1 subject several confederates victim Measured how much time it took for a person to respond to the emergency 0 Results 0 Alone 85 of the time the responded o 1 and 1 60 0 Several confederates present 30 0 This shows diffusion of responsibility lngroup and Outgroup Bias Ex quotLord of the Fliesquot groups to which we belong we are more likely to be positively prejudiced towards members in our group and more willing to do favors for them groups to which we do not belong o tend to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members Robbers Cave Experiment 0 Method 0 Two groups of 11 boys who were very similar and new to the area 0 Both groups were sent separately to a boy scout camp 0 Neither group knew the other group was there 0 Stage 1 Group Identi cation 0 Each group chose a name 0 At the end of week one they were noti ed of the other group 0 Each group began to plot to take down the other Week 13 Lecture Notes 0 Stage 2 Competition 0 A war broke out between the groups 0 Major hostility and ghting 0 Competitive tasks 0 Stage 3 Reconciliation o Noncompetitive activities did not reduce the hostility 0 After given a common goal to work towards hate between the two groups decreased


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