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Psych 100 - Week 12

by: Tram Anh Ton Nu

Psych 100 - Week 12 PSYC

Tram Anh Ton Nu
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Basic Concepts in Psychology
Dr. Renshaw
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tram Anh Ton Nu on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC at George Mason University taught by Dr. Renshaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 This week we covered: disorders and therapy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsession: repetitive unwanted thoughts, images, or urges Compulsion: repetitive behavior that alleviates anxiety that comes from obsession Explanations behind OCD  Having intrusive thoughts is normal, but people with OCD think of these thoughts Cognitive-behavioral perspective as having meanings  Compulsion reduces obsessive thought. This is negative reinforcement Biomedical perspective  OCD comes from serotonin disregulation Trauma and stress-related disorders Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  Happens after a person experiences “trauma” o Trauma: event or experience that makes people fear for their life or bodily integrity  Core symptoms of PTSD o Re-experiencing/intrusion symptoms: having thoughts about the experience, having flashbacks when you don’t want to o Avoidance: avoiding things that remind you of the trauma o Negative mood and negative cognitions: emotional numbing/becoming emotionless o Hyperarousal: having trouble sleeping and being on constant alert  Note that these symptoms are very normal responses to trauma and many people experience them. However, in order to be diagnosed with PTSD, you have to have the symptoms for at least a few months. PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 Mood disorders Depression  It is a syndrome, not a symptom  Characterized by being in a sad mood for a significant amount of the time, change in appetite and sleep (sometimes they decrease, sometimes they increase), and negative thoughts and behavior  Statistically, women are 2x more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men  Spontaneous remission: depression can go away on its own, but if untreated this takes 6-9 months Types of depressive disorders  Major Depressive Disorder (symptoms for at least 2 weeks)  Dysthymia (less severe symptoms that last long—2 years) Explanations for depression Cognitive perspective  Depression caused by negative thinking patterns Behavioral perspective  Depression caused by not enough reinforcing activities Psychodynamic perspective  Depression caused by unconscious conflict Biomedical perspective  Serotonin receptors are affected (although other neurotransmitters may be involved) Bipolar disorder Characterized by mania  Euphoric mood and sometimes irritability  Lack of sleep  Bursts of ideas  Engaging in impulsive, high-risk behavior After mania comes a depressive episode PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 Cyclothymia: lighter version of bipolar with lighter symptoms Explanation for bipolar disorder Biomedical perspective - Dysregulation of neurotransmitter activity - Sleep disruptions trigger manic episodes - Stressors trigger depressive episodes Personality disorders These disorders are thought to be egosyntonic (feels like it’s a part of yourself). Opposite is egodystonic. Clusters of personality disorders  Anxious o Characterized by person being avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive  Odd o Schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid  Dramatic o Antisocial, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline Dissociative disorders Involves dissociation, or temporary disruption in a person’s awareness of what is going on Dissociative amnesia  Person mysteriously develops amnesia and doesn’t know who they are Dissociative fugue  Person forgets who they are and relocate to another place under a new identity PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 Dissociative identity disorder (used to be called multiple personality disorder)  Person develops alters (2 or more distinct identities that exist within one individual and at least one alter is not aware of the other/s)  Note: it is not schizophrenia Explanation for dissociative identity disorder Psychodynamic perspective - Dissociative identity disorder is caused by horrific experiences as a child (extreme neglect or abuse). When abuse happens, the child dissociates and goes to a “safe place.” As time goes on, the alters develop simultaneously but independently of each other Schizophrenia Characterized by psychosis (when a person loses contact with reality) Positive symptoms (things that a person with schizophrenia has a lot of)  Hallucinations: feeling sensations that are not there (seeing things, hearing things)  Delusions: believing things that are not real (ex: believing that someone is coming after you)  Disorganized thoughts, behavior, and speech  Inappropriate emotions that don’t fit the situation Negative symptoms (things person is lacking)  Flat affect (lack of emotions)  Catatonia (lack of response in muscle movement or eye movement)  Decrease in daily activity (ex: showering, grooming, etc) Common myth: schizophrenic people are dangerous. This is not true as schizophrenics are mostly just dangerous to themselves Explanation for schizophrenia Psychodynamic perspective - Schizophrenia is caused by excessive dopamine PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 Types of therapy Biomedical therapy - primarily uses drug treatments, especially those that affect neurotransmitter activity  For anxiety o Benzodiazepines (enhances GABA—a chemical in the brain—activity) o Beta blocker (inhibits binding to beta receptors)  For depression o Most involve increasing serotonin activity o Most common: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)  For bipolar disorder o Involves “mood stabilitizers” (like lithium)  For schizophrenia (or psychosis) o Antipsychotics o Dopamine blockers Electroconvulsive therapy – involves sending shocks to the brain  Can be effective for depression if other treatments fail  Has serious physical side effects Psychodynamic therapy – ultimate goal is to bring unconscious material into conscious awareness (basically, breaking barriers that’s been keeping unconscious locked away)  Achieve insight into why you are struggling  Insight leads to carthasis (emotional release) Approach and techniques  Therapist should be a “blank slate” that you can project emotions onto  Doing free association and dream analysis Humanistic therapy  Very client-centered (approach developed by Carl Rogers)  Involves therapist providing unconditional positive regard to client  Therapist does reflective listening  No direction or interpretation on part of therapist; client leads the way  Client will realize their strengths and potential and figure out how to solve their own problems PSYCH 100 11/17 & 11/19 Behavior therapy – places much emphasis on learning and conditioning For anxiety  Person is exposed to what causes them anxiety (this will lead to extinction of anxious response)  Very effective way to treat anxiety disorder and OCD  Can be approached with gradual exposure (start small and build up) or flooding (immediately expose client to the thing they fears) For depression  Emphasis is placed on building positive reinforcers back to everyday life (ie, finding things to enjoy and make you confident in what you can do) For behavior problems  Use behavior modification; system of rewards for desired behavior


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