China, Islam and Consumer Revolution Nov 16-20
China, Islam and Consumer Revolution Nov 16-20 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Imperial China (618-1600) I. Tang Dynasty (618-907) A. Li Shimin B. City of Chang’an (Xi’an) C. Foreign influences D. Buddhism E. Poetry F. An Lushan Rebellion (755) G. Later Tang i. Turks ii. Li Bo Tang Dynasty expand china enormously and by doing so, they make it an empire. The emperor’s backgrounds were Chinese and Turks. When they expand china, it’s over part of the area where Turks are and this is a very open time in china for foreign influences for there are many coming in and out of china. The most important emperor was Li Shimin because he epitomizes what the early tang dynasty was about; he was a great military leader and spread most to the west and northwest. He is also a writer and poet and a man of letters and wrote of what would be a good emperor; you have to be a man of military strength (warrior) and a man of word (educated). The capital is Chang’an (end of Silk Road so lots of merchants and people to learn Buddhism) which is the largest city in the world of that time and inhabited about 1 million people. This city was planned and a grid pattern which was rare at the time. The city was divided into gated neighborhoods and the gates were shut every night for security. This reflects the atmosphere of this period and many of the people are foreign. China has a history of being opened and closed to foreign influences. Turks in particular were welcomed and appreciated in china at this point. Li Shimin son was obsessed with Turkish people and polo became a huge sport because of Turks. This is a great age for Buddhism. There was a Buddhist monastery on every major battlefield to pray for the souls of those who died there. This is also a great age of poetry and it is fashionable to write poetry. Li Bo was a great Chinese poet and wrote probably 20,000 poems. Everybody who was educated was expected to write poetry; a gift for the elite at a party would be your own poem or two to read at the party. If you weren’t good at poetry, many people would write and sell poetry. This all comes to a screeching halt in 755 because of the An Lushan Rebellion. He was a commander on the frontier of china and he had problems with keeping and recruiting an army out there; these people were loyal to him but not to the emperor or to china so he decides to be a warlord and carve a kingdom for himself so he starts a rebellion with an army in the frontier so he engages in 8 years of civil war and the result is that is rattles china and changes china. China closed off to foreigners and became very suspicious in Tang’s later years. East Asia, 1100-1600 II. Song (Sung) Dynasty A. Confucianism B. Scholar-gentry C. Administration i. Zhu Xi They were basically the heir to Tang. The emperors embraced Confucianism instead of Buddhism so this is a great age of Confusion revival and Zhu Xi was a Confucian scholar at the time. They wanted to make Confucianism a more personable things and wanted people to act upon it and live according to it. This is also an age where the scholar gentry flourished. The Chinese elite who are educating their sons to serve in government and sit through the civil service exam which included Confucianism inside and out. Song administration tended to neglect the military. They were so turned off by the rebellion, they tended to neglect the military and border defenses because they’re so distrustful and this makes china vulnerable to outsiders and vulnerable to invasion and conquest by the Mongol Empire. The Mongol’s create an enormous empire that includes China and much, much more. They live to the north of china and Chinese referred to them as barbarians and in the 12 century, Chingis Khan makes them a force by uniting the tribes and pushing out. III. Mongol Empire A. Chingis Khan (Ghengis Khan) B. Warfare C. Empire i. Kublai Khan ii. Marco Polo Chingis Khan began the conquest of china and unifies the Mongol tribes. Their brand of warfare works very well and they were given advantages by using the horse which intimidated other people; they rode hard and fast (80-90 miles a day per warrior) and they could shoot a bow and arrow and never break a stride. Speed took people by surprise but because they were constantly moving, they developed a signal core by a system of flags to communicate. They were really good at seizing weapons. They used bamboo and incendiaries to send flaming missiles over walls to burn people out. They were VERY intimidating. Kublai Khan (Chingis’s son) completed the take over and allowed foreign fluidity. Marco Polo from Europe (Italy) travelled to china, stayed 17 years, maintained a travel journal and wrote extensively because he is so blown away by china for it is ancient and advanced and wealthy. Problems Mongols have is that they were foreign and the Chinese didn’t forget that so when they fell from power, Chinese took over. IV. Ming Dynasty A. Ming Taizu (Hung Wu) B. Explorations C. Turning inward D. Agriculture i. Revolution and commerce ii. Cheng Ho (Zheng He) Founder of this dynasty was Ming Taizu (Hung Wu). He was orphaned at a young age and ended up being reared by Buddhist monks. He became deeply involved in a secret society which took military action towards the Mongols, leads them to success and becomes emperor. He is most important because he laid the blueprint for how china would be rules by the Ming’s. They were very legalistic and Confucius; they were law and order types of people and could be very harsh. Example: Early in his reign, one of his right hand men did something that made him feel betrayed so he has him executes, his family executed, and anyone who had any remote connection with his family to execute (40,000 people). Lots and laws, lots of regulations because anything that the government could prescribe, they would. He ruled without a prime minister. He embarked on person rule so a typical week for him, he did a ton of work and probably looked at 3300 issues to read and make decisions for these himself. The problem of this crazy load is its exhausting, inconsistency is common, bottleneck and inefficiency makes things very slow. All Ming emperors relied heavily on scholar gentry. There was a period (1405-1433) in which they sponsored explorations which wasn’t long but it was glorious. Cheng Ho was the Christopher Columbus of china. In this period, he left china and sailed to east coast of Africa and he made a pilgrimage to mecca himself (he was Muslim) and the ships the Chinese used were enormous and made well. They travelled long distances and took gifts to present to other governments and brought gifts back; intellectual curiosities as well as commercial relations. This halted in 1433 abruptly. The emperor only allowed sailing around china and in Chinese waters. Later, a Ming emperor stopped the building of large ships and only allowed on sail to limit travel. The scholar gentry didn’t support the age of exploration and had a large hand in the government; they wanted Chinese to stay at home to work on and in itself. Scholar Gentry makes china start to turn inward and eliminate all outside influences. China did pay attention to china and did have a little agricultural revolution. The government tried to assist farmers vigorously and worked hard to spread techniques and also did a lot of infrastructure projects to help. The net result was that in the th middle of 17 century, they had the best fed population in the world. Other parts of the world there are extreme episodes of famine and starvation. China is a super trader of the period because the government wants it to be. The scale of trade goes way up and they are selling porcelain which is the number one most important commodity (silk and tea is later). North Americans couldn’t get enough of Chinese porcelain. Chinese porcelain has an enormous market and most popular is the blue and white porcelain. Porcelain was invented under the Han Dynasty and china became a huge producer of it. Christian missionaries reach dynasty late 16 th century. V. Christian Missionaries A. Matteo Ricci B. Rites Controversy i. Jesuits ii. Franciscans Matteo Ricci was a missionary Jesuit who made his way to china and the court and got people interested in the top of Chinese elite. They brought European goods to provoke their interests and the mechanical clock was what peaked their interest most. Ricci wasn’t the first and only but he was most important. There were Franciscans as well who went other and what separated the two was what language the mass should be celebrated in (Franciscans- Latin, Jesuit- Chinese) and this was a rites controversy between them. This was such a rift that they took it to the Pope who decided on traditional mass. The conflict among these two missionary groups undermined their efforts at the time. Islamic Empires, I: The Ottomans 1. Expansion of Empire A. Mehmet the Conqueror B. Suleiman the Magnithcent C. Viziers of the 17 century i. Sultan ii. Jannissaries iii. Koprulus iv. John Sobiesky Ruled from Constantinople or Istanbul and they created an enormous empire. They came to be such a super power due to superb leadership who is led by a Sultan (emperor). Mehmet the Conqueror was important because he conquered Constantinople is 1463. He finished off the old Byzantine Empire and used guns to do so (by Eastern Europe). Suleiman the Magnificent was the Sultan during Protestant Reformation and laid seize to Vienna which all ended up helping Martin Luther. He is a very talented leader in all ways and had a mega army. The Janissaries are the special forces of the Sultan and they are different because they were not born into Turkish or Muslim families, they were born into mostly Greek Orthodox Christianity,. They were taken from their families as a levy and reared to be fighting machines; they were an enslaved elite who were privileged and treated well. These guys could not own property or marriage because the Sultan wanted nothing to hold them back. There is a crisis of leadership so there was a custom or Law of fratricide (killing of brothers). They would round up any rival clans of anyone who might try to overthrow him and install themselves so they would round these people up and execute them which turned into a blood bath because there were so many half-brothers, cousins, etc. so they abandoned this policy because it was distasteful and so they gathered the same people and locked them up for the duration of the reign in a harem and totally distracted. When the sultan died, they would go and get the closest related person from the harem as Sultan but these th people were bad so there was a decline and they lost land. The Viziers of the 17 century; there was a Grand Vizier which ended up having a family who kept this job and were almost their own small dynasty. Sevieski is the king of Poland and Ottomans has small land there for a long time so John Sovieski had an interest in stopping them so he went and saved Vienna from being once again being seized (he was the origin of the pastry croissant). 2. Ottomans in Eastern Europe A. Ethnic Composition B. Administration C. Conversions D. Cultural Toleration 3. Failures and decline i. Serbia ii. Bosnia iii. Devshirme iv. Harem v. Law of Fratricide There was an ethnic change in Europe due to Ottomans but not too much of a change. There was more of a displacement of peoples and populations. There were not a bunch of Turks moving in; they stayed in Constantinople instead of moving capitol. The administration was not very harsh and was much better than Christian regimes in Eastern Europe. Ottomans taxed East Europe but not near as much as Christians. They were a lot nicer of a rule mainly because they didn’t bother to have a strong hold and let them self-reign and do what they want. They were also not forced to be Muslim and they could remain their religion but they paid a tax. Conversions did take place in pockets that are still in place. Bosnia has an enormous Muslim population but in general, it’s limited. This created problems in East Europe because it created conflicts. The Ottomans were tolerant and didn’t force their ways or language; they let people do their own thing which is a reason why the empire disintegrated. The last seize of Vienna to WWI (1683-1918) the Ottoman Empire declined very gradually and is the “Sick man of Europe”. This is because they didn’t unify other places under their own culture and language as well as too much fighting of another Muslim population which drained them both financially. The only thing left in the end was modern Turkey. Will be on test below (a lot) Consumer Revolution in World History Late to middle 17 century is consumer revolution which is when people began to buy stuff because they wanted it, not because they needed it; it makes them happy. They are buying nonessential things!!!! Image: Rembrandt Merchants shopping so that other people can shop and have goods from all over the world. Shifting relationship between goods and people - Rise of consumerism - Emulation or fashion? o Are people copying what elites are doing? o People are intrigued by fashion now o This could be furniture, food, clothes, etc. (What is trending) o Fashion: what makes fashion tick are the twin concepts of novelty and obsolescence. For fashion to function, it is driven by novelty and obsolescence or old. - Significance of luxury consumption o Luxury is different in different classes - Theories of consumption o Could have started by retail therapy because people were feeling good when they bought new nice things - Luxury debate o Intellectuals were in a luxury debate because many were opposed by the materialistic nature and it is ruining society. o On the flip side, it made the economy grow in this period - Role of imports and the exotic o Imported goods are huge at this time o So much of what people wanted was foreign from china, India, and Spice Islands. They also wanted rugs from Middle East and coffee, cocoa, etc. New Goods: Exotics A. Exotic goods i. Tea, coffee, chocolate, tobacco (people never had caffeine until now; they only had alcohol, really. This charges Europe up. Chocolate (Africa until from Americas) was drank at this time. Tobacco began the smoking habit.) ii. Calicos (fabrics from India; printed and cotton.) iii. Ceramics (from China) iv. Lacquerware (from china and Japan) v. Metal ware (Ottomans and east) vi. Rugs (middle east) First photo family portraits: They’re all having tea and having portraits done with stuff and having tea is very new; this was done to show status. This also means they know exotics. The people in these paintings are situated similar. These people actually went to this artists’ studios to get their portrait done with stuff that isn’t there. Samuels family: Drinking tea in the portait in America. This is in the living room with the family and family portraits behind them. “ The chocolate girl” A girl was serving hot chocolate and this shows how fixated society became on these goods. th English Coffee House- 17 C Oldest engraving depicting this. Tea, chocolate and coffee were so popular, socialites were constructed around them and this gave rise to cafes and coffee houses. This was exclusively male which became politically controversial which made monarch a little worried. Café Procope Considered first of French cafes which were frequented by men and women and they also served food and alcohol which is different from the English coffee house. Tobacco Peoples smoked, even peasants. th 18 cent Indian Calico for British Market Very elaborate to print these; they’re very beautiful, colorful and intricate. Europeans and American colonies love these. Ming Porcelain These were way incredibly popular, especially blue and white. It is so popular, Europeans struggled to produce knock offs. The porcelain was more beautiful and more useable because it’s harder and easier to keep clean. 18 thcent European Imitations Meissee: where the code to how to make porcelain was cracked (Germany). They also decorated them very similar. Many of the European countries made similar knockoffs but still not as nice as the Chinese. Chinese (for Dutch) They started customizing their things for Europeans and what would work better and be more tasteful for Europeans. Armorial plate Very wealthy people placed orders for full dining china set with their own code of arms in the center. This also happened in the Americas. Chinese also made their designs different to fit the Americans. Ottoman ceramics were also big. City of Ismik made a lot (not as much as china). Japanese Lacquer A wooden trey or box decorated by gold and or silver and then using a special resin, incredible amounts of garnish were painted on. This was so popular, the English began to do this to furniture which was called “Japaning.” Islamic metal ware Highly ornate and decorated from Islamic world. A lot relief designs. “Flower piece” There is a tulip in the center (early modern tulip). This still-life was a celebration of the tulip and the Netherlands brought tulip bulbs from ottomans to grow them. This was such a rage, the Dutch were involved in a huge production of these for elites. The tulips were changed annually and having the new tulips was a huge status symbol. This spiked economy here. Rugs from Ottoman Empire They were handmade, very intricate, dyed by hand, etc. many put these on the tables, not floor because they’re too expensive to get dirty and this was a way to show them off. “Still-life with parot” Still life was big at this time. Could argue they’re about shopping. Dutch perfected this type of painting. Animals became a consumer good, especially birds. Europeans brought back a lot of birds from all over. Birds were most common but monkeys were even a big deal. There is also a celebration of food in this painting.
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