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GEOG 150: Week 9 Notes

by: Julia Gladding

GEOG 150: Week 9 Notes GEOG 150

Julia Gladding
Cal Poly
GPA 3.9

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These notes are Part 1 of the Political Geography unit. Topics include introduction to political geography, the United Nations, colonization, Taiwan, Korea, the breakup of the Soviet Union and more...
Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
Dr. Meg Streiff
Class Notes
human geography, cultural geography, introduction to geography, introduction to cultural geography, political geography
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 11/20/15
Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Lecture Political Geography Introduction to Political Geography What is political - political geography = the politics of space geography? - Look at how territory is divided up, fought over What questions to • Who is doing the fighting? political geographer • Where are they fighting? ask? • How are they fighting? (Weapons?) Why are people fighting? (Oil? Political power?) • • At the end, has anything changed? Were new borders drawn? • Is the US involved? - US drone strikes • part of President Obama’s strategy to bring troops home What is required in - The UN order to be in the UN? • must be a sovereign, independent country • can be denied membership into the UN (i.e. Taiwan) When do most • most countries joined the UN when they gained countries join the UN? independence Why dod countries join • countries join the UN because it provides countries the UN? political and economic backup How is the UN funded? • every country pays membership dues according to their wealth What did the World - The World in 1914 Map Map look like in 1914? • Around 50 countries • the world under colonial rule What happened • Empires have fallen between 1914 and • Wars! today? - Wars change everything - WWI (Ottomans and Germans lost their land), WWII (Japanese, Italians lost their land), Europe decolonized after WWII 1 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Political Freedom & Civil Liberties, 2015 Who puts out the - Map put out by Freedom House Political Freedom & - Freedom House an organization who tracks political Civil Liberties map? freedom and civil liberties - Measures by UN What do the different - Green: politically free; Yellow: somewhat free; Blue/ colors mean? Purple: not free What does Freedom - Freedom House looks at: House look at in order • Are there open elections? Can people vote freely? to evaluate political • Is there political opposition? freedom? • Can people access information from a free press? • Do people have religious freedom? • Sexuality/gender • Right to protest • Prison systems - U.S. is not at the top of the free countries because our prison system is corrupt • Right to free trial Restrictions on movement • What has been the - For the last 10-20 years, we have been seeing more trend in the last 10-20 blue. The world is becoming less free. Mostly because years? of media and Internet freedom. Governments also using more military tactics to put down protests. What trend has Russia - Russia went backward this year gone through this • invaded Ukraine and took land year? - Egypt went backward this year Egypt? • two revolutions later, have a new dictator Thailand? - Thailand had a coup, military took over Ethiopia? - Ethiopia has an army that shoots into crowds of protestors Why is this map - With this map, can track a country’s political freedom useful? over time. What is the least free - Syria: least free country in the world country in the world? 2 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Historical/Geographical Context - East Asia Which countries have • constant battles between Russia and China ties to East Asia? • Germans in East Asia for a little bit • British • French Why were Europeans • Europe is establishing “spheres of influence” there? Later Europe moves in and takes the land/colonizing • while Europe is industrializing Which countries are • Europe is rising as Manchu Dynasty in China is falling rising and falling? - China lost two wars to Britain (Opium wars) - China forced to open up their ports to foreign trade • Internal problems in China • Russia is falling What is Japan doing? • Japan is forming a stronger military Who did Japan have • 1895 Japan fought a war with China that gave Japan wars with? What were control of Taiwan the territorial changes • 1905 Japan fought a war with Russia. Japan won that resulted from everything. Japan won the Kuril Islands. these wars? - Russia took the Kuril Islands back later • Japan moved into Korea. By 1910, Korea is a Japanese colony. Why do political • Many political geographers say Korea is located in an geographers say Korea unfortunate spot: shares a border with China to the is located in an North, with Russia to the Northeast, just 100 miles unfortunate spot? across a body of water from Japan. Who is fighting over • Point: China, Russia and Japan have wanted to Korea? occupy Korea or block access to it. In 1910, who occupied 1910: Japanese occupied Korea (had a military • Korea? What was life there). like in Korea? - Koreans had no choice but to work in factories, crops sent to Japan - Minerals extracted but mineral wealth went to Japan. - Any opposition to Japanese rule was brutally punished. - Korean women forced to be sex slaves. - Today, Japan say colonization was moderate. Japan industrialized Korea. - Couldn’t teach Korean language, history. 3 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 What is part of the • WWII — Soviet Union gets involved in WWII because reason the Soviet they wanted revenge from the Russo-Japanese war. Union got involved in Wanted Kuril Islands back. WWII? • 1945, Japanese are gone from Korea. After WWII, what - Soviets accepted Japan’s surrender of Korea happened to Korea? everywhere north of the 38th parallel: North Korea. • created a Communist society - Americans accepted Japan’s surrender of Korea everywhere south of the 38th parallel: South Korea • created a capitalist society What happened in 1950 • 1950: North Korea attacks South with the goal of in Korea? “liberating” the South from Western capitalism Who allies with North - Chinese help North Korea Korea? Who allies with - US leads UN force in South Korea - South Korea? President Truman worries about Domino Theory Why was the US • if one country turns communist, then the next one involved? will, and the next one will, and the next one will… Who won? - 3 years of fighting and no one won - Ceasefire signed in 1953 but never a permanent peace treaty Where did both sides - 38th parallel of latitude was the line where both pull their troops back? sides pulled their troops back What are the attitudes - Koreans on both sides want reunification but toward reunification? leaders do not What is life in North - North Korea Korea like? • is stuck in 1950 • increasingly isolated from the world • increasingly hostile to the West • One dictator to another. • Instead of spending money on people, spend money on military. • Has nuclear weapons How has South Korea - South Korea transformed? • gone from being a farming society to being a super modern, educated, industrialized society What happened in - Sunshine Policy in 2000 allowed families from 2000? either sides to see each other for the first time since 1940s Is unification coming? - Unification not coming anytime soon 4 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Taiwan According to the UN, is - Technically, by the UN, there is only one government, Taiwan independent or and that government in is Beijing. Taiwan is technically part of China? not independent, technically part of China. In reality, what is the - In reality, since 1949, China and Taiwan have been relationship between totally separate. - China and Taiwan? Chinese Civil War (1912-1949) What two groups • Nationalists (Chaing Kai-shek) and Communists (Mao fought in the Chinese Zedong) battling for power Civil War? What were • Remarkably similar to Russia the outcomes? • In China, Communists win. • 1949: Chaing Kai-shek and Nationalists lost the war but said they were the legitimate government of China. They would be called the Republic of China. But on the mainland, Mao Zedong said the same • thing. Their government would be called the People’s Republic of China. - industrialized China How is Taiwan different - Taiwan has taken a different path: market economy. from China? Close relationship with the US politically and economically. How do the US and the • Initially, in 1949, US and UN recognized the Republic UN recognize Taiwan? of China as the legitimate government. Backed Taiwan. • In 1971, US switched allegiances, recognized People’s Republic of China. To try to get China closer to us, keep them from going to Russia. - UN did the same thing • We don’t recognize Taiwan as the government of China, but said we would back up Taiwan militarily. What historical event - November 7, 2015: leaders of Taiwan (President Ma) happened on Nov. 7, and China (President Xi) shook hands/were in the same 2015? room for the first time since 1940s What do the presidents • President Xi still talks about Taiwan coming back to of China and Taiwan the mainland/“to the motherland” say? • President Ma, Taiwan says they don’t want missiles pointed so directly at them 5 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Rubenstein Political Geography 258-275 Where Are States Distributed? - A World of States What is a state? • state = an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs • States have sovereignty. What is sovereignty? - sovereignty = independence from control of its internal affairs by other states How does land • Land occupied by a state varies. Russia is the largest. occupied by a state There are many microstates, which have very small vary? land areas. • The United Nations - see map on pages 262-263 What does the UN do? - intervenes in conflicts between or within member states - promotes international cooperation to address global economic problems, promote human rights, provide humanitarian relief When were the three - Three eras of rapid growth in UN membership: eras of rapid growth of • 1955 — European countries liberated from Nazi UN membership? Germany during WWII • 1960 — former African colonies of Britain or France • 1990-1993 — breakup of Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Admission of microstates. Does the UN have a - UN does not have a military, relies on individual military? countries for troops. - UN is a forum for discussion of and voting on international problems. 6 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - Challenges in Defining States • Korea: One State or Two? Do North Korea and - see lecture notes above for history South Korea want - Both countries want reunion, but halted when North reunification? Korea began building nuclear weapons According the UN, is - North Korea and South Korea were admitted into Korea one state or the United Nations as two separate countries two? • China and Taiwan: One State or Two? How is the China/ - Civil war between Nationalists and Communists Taiwan situation - Nationalists claimed they were the legitimate related to the Chinese government of China, governed Taiwan Civil War? - China said they were the legitimate government What is the US’s - US supported Nationalists because they opposed stance? communism. But in 1971 UN transferred China’s seat from the Nationalists to the Communists Who claims Western • Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic) Sahara? - Morocco claims the entire territory Who claims the polar • Polar Regions: Many Claims regions? - Several states claim portions of the South Pole and Arctic, some claims are overlapping and conflicting - Development of State Concept Are nation-states an • Organizing Earth into nation-states in a recent old or new concept? concept What kinds of states • Ancient States — first states were city-states. were there in ancient Comprised of a town and the agricultural countryside and medieval times? around it. • Medieval States — empires What is a nation-state’s • Nation-states — a state’s territory corresponds to territory based on? ethnicity of occupants. - Formed out of ethnic groups’ desire to self-rule. • called self-determination 7 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 Why are Nation-states Difficult to Create? - Nation-states and Multinational States What is a multinational • multinational state = a country that contains more state? than one ethnicity with traditions of self-determination Give examples of • Nation-States in Europe nation-states in - Denmark - Europe. Slovenia How did Communists - Communists in Eastern Europe discouraged treat ethnicities? ethnicities from expressing their cultural How did the breakup of uniqueness. the Soviet Union, - Breakup of Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia allowed more-numerous ethnicities Czechoslovakia impact to organize into independent nation-states. nation-states? • Independent Nation-States in Former Soviet Republics - Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics which are now independent states. What is the largest • The Largest Multinational State: Russia multinational state? - Russia has 39 ethnic groups. What do many of these - Many of these ethnic groups want to form ethnic groups want? independent nation-states. - Russia is less willing to forcibly suppress independence movements than the Soviet Union was. Why is there ethnic • Turmoil in the Caucasus conflict in the - Under Soviet Union ethnic disputes were crushed. Caucasus? - Once broken up into independent countries, armed ethnic conflicts began. - Each ethnicity wants a sovereign nation-state. 8 Wednesday, November 18, 2015 - Colonies What is a colony? • colony = a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent • Colonialism Why did European - Reasons European states established colonies: states colonize? • Promote Christianity Extract resources; captive market for their • products • Establish relative power my having many colonies What two countries had - United Kingdom had the largest colonial empire. the largest colonial - France had second-largest colonial empire. empire? • The Remaining Colonies Are there colonies - Only a few colonies remain. today? - Most are islands in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. • Example: Puerto Rico 9


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