Week 12 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
• Girls: o Early maturation disadvantageous § Less popular, less focused on academics § Higher risk of depression, anxiety, problem behaviors o Later maturation advantageous § More popular and academic • Impact of timing fades somewhat but may still have effects into early adulthood Brain Development • Continued pruning of unused synapses • Growth and myelination of stimulated neurons speeds up • Connections between areas of the brain strengthen o Mostly in corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, amygdala o More control of impulses o Higher level thinking better • Maturation of the limbic system happens before maturation of the prefrontal cortex o Emotional control not fully developed until early adulthood § Risk can be governed by emotion • Neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters o More sensitive to stressful, pleasurable and/or novel stimuli o More sensitive to Oxytocin; may help explain self-‐consciousness, desire to please peers Brain Development: Changing States of Arousal • Circadian rhythm shifts: get sleepy later, want to wake up later o Want to get to bed later • Still need ~9 hours of sleep, but often do not get that o If sleep-‐deprived: § Perform worse on cognitive tasks in the AM § Academic difficulties § Depression, emotional outbursts § More high risk behaviors, auto accidents • Delaying start of school can help, but not completely o If delay school an hour, then problem with extracurricular activities Motor Development • Boys and girls are equal in improvements until puberty o Then boys continue to increase in strength, skill, speed; girls often level off or decline o Why? § Biological differences § Gender role socialization o Girls who participate in sports during childhood and adolescence: § Increase in positive body image, perceptions of physical competence, positive “masculine” traits (used to be seen as masculine but now neutral: aggressive, leader) § Correlated with higher self-‐esteem Chapter 15: Cognitive Development in Adolescence Stages of Cognitive Development: Formal Operations (12 and older) • Can mentally manipulate abstract objects/concepts o Develop hypotheticodeductive reasoning: can make hypothesis about objects/events that are not real § Thinking about what could be • Ex: if no one had a thumb, the world would change o Develop inductive reasoning: ability to go from specific observations to broad generalization § Ex: burnt cookies: think and test out variables to make the cookies again and not burnt; test out one variable at a time o Pendulum Problem: older kids understand weight or length of string could be the problem and can test one variable at a time and younger kids cannot understand how to test one variable at a time and will test multiple at one time which will disenable them to figure out the problem Implications of Formal Operations • Ability to think abstractly + increases in metacognition = broader changes: o Richer understanding of people o Ability to form an identity § Can you imagine yourself as a number of different thing o Increased complexity of though § There can be different solutions for a problem and imagine a different future o Ability to imagine hypothetical versions of reality § Can lead to confusion, rebellion against “illogical rules”, idealism because able to imagine an ideal world versus the world now (reality) which can lead to anger • Adolescent Egocentrism: state of self-‐absorption in which the world is viewed from one’s own point of view o Imaginary Audience: belief that everyone around is as interested in their thoughts and behaviors as they are o Personal Fable: part of adolescent egocentrism that involves feeling special, unique and invincible § Wouldn’t happen to me because I am special and unique Formal Operations • Research indicates that not all adults reach formal operations • More schooling = more able to reach formal operations o Most likely to show abstract thinking on areas that are interesting, relevant to your life (such as your major) o All adults likely have the ability to use formal operations, but may have to learn to do so through experience Post Formal Though: Emerging Adulthood and Beyond • Ways of thinking that are more complex than formal operational thinking o Relativistic Thinking: realizing knowledge is subjective and relative § Teens are absolutists: there is only one truth, correct solution § Adults may be relativists § Students get more relativistic during college years – there is not one absolute truth so everyone is right but by end of college, pick opinions that make more sense with evidence to support it Moral Development • Moral Reasoning: thinking process that occurs when we decide what is right or wrong • Kohlberg tested people by asking how they would respond to moral dilemmas o Actual decision is not as important as reasons why they made the decision § Reason is what determines stage • Developed stage theory of moral development o Cannot skip a stage or go back • 3 Levels: o Level 1: Preconventional Morality § Rules are external rather than internalized § What is right is what you can get away with, what is personally satisfying • Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Orientation o What is moral to kids has to do with punishment o Punishment if doing something wrong o Characterized by desire to avoid punishment o Intentions are ignored: does not matter if reasons are good or bad § Only punishment matters • Stage 2: Instrumental Hedonism o What is right gets you the most reward o Characterized by desire to gain rewards or satisfy needs o Reward more important than punishment o Level 2: Conventional Morality § Guided by internalized morals • Societal norms are internal § Punishments, rewards become more abstract • Ex: are other people going to see me as a good or bad person; society continues to function normally § Typically reached in early adolescence • Most adults stayed at this level • Stage 3: “Good Boy” or “Good Girl” Morality o What is right pleases others § “Meaning well”, being nice is valued o Intention now considered o Seeking approval, avoiding disapproval now reinforcing factor • Stage 4: Authority and Social Order Maintaining Morality o Morality associated with following “will of society”, reflected in laws, social norms o Rigid sense of right and wrong based on law adopted o Conforms to rules of authority (laws), concerned with upholding social order and doing one’s duty o Going against law causes chaos o Level 3: Postconventional Morality § Develop broadly defined ethical principles not set by authority • Recognizes laws are not always moral • Looks beyond authority to take perspective of all, instead of one social group o Challenge the law o Understanding legality and morality sometimes does not match • Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation o One’s conduct is defined according to a “social contract”: should be linked to common good, not just focusing on benefit to self o People have basic rights that we must prove it § Try to change law to benefit all people o Laws should be democratic, maximize welfare of all o If laws compromise basic human rights, have moral obligation to challenge law • Stage 6: Morality of Individual Principles of Conscience o “Right” and “wrong” based on self-‐generated principles o Principles adhered to regardless of consequence to individual § Value principles more than their own lives o So rare and hard to determine, Kohlberg stopped looking it Is Moral Reasoning Related to Moral Behavior? • Not in early childhood o Even if know something is wrong, will still do it • Moderately related after early childhood o Kohlberg used dilemmas to determine level of morality of students § Then tempted them to cheat • Preconventional morals: 70% cheated • Conventional morals: 55% cheated • Postconventional: 15% cheated Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory • Western theory bias o Democratic laws important à very much of a western bias • A gender biased model towards men o Logic, rights, abstract thinking: ways men think o Women will get stuck at level 3 § Despite what he thought though, women could get to all levels