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Week 12 Notes

by: Emilie Vainer

Week 12 Notes PSYC 4220

Emilie Vainer
GPA 3.8

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Notes for the week of November 16th-20th! Enjoy!
Developmental Psychology
Kacy Welsh
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
• Girls:   o Early  maturation  disadvantageous   § Less  popular,  less  focused  on  academics   § Higher  risk  of  depression,  anxiety,  problem  behaviors   o Later  maturation  advantageous     § More  popular  and  academic     • Impact  of  timing  fades  somewhat  but  may  still  have  effects  into  early   adulthood   Brain  Development   • Continued  pruning  of  unused  synapses   • Growth  and  myelination  of  stimulated  neurons  speeds  up   • Connections  between  areas  of  the  brain  strengthen   o Mostly  in  corpus  callosum,  prefrontal  cortex,  amygdala   o More  control  of  impulses   o Higher  level  thinking  better   • Maturation  of  the  limbic  system  happens  before  maturation  of  the  prefrontal   cortex   o Emotional  control  not  fully  developed  until  early  adulthood   § Risk  can  be  governed  by  emotion   • Neurons  become  more  responsive  to  excitatory  neurotransmitters   o More  sensitive  to  stressful,  pleasurable  and/or  novel  stimuli   o More  sensitive  to  Oxytocin;  may  help  explain  self-­‐consciousness,   desire  to  please  peers   Brain  Development:  Changing  States  of  Arousal   • Circadian  rhythm  shifts:  get  sleepy  later,  want  to  wake  up  later   o Want  to  get  to  bed  later   • Still  need  ~9  hours  of  sleep,  but  often  do  not  get  that     o If  sleep-­‐deprived:   § Perform  worse  on  cognitive  tasks  in  the  AM   § Academic  difficulties   § Depression,  emotional  outbursts   § More  high  risk  behaviors,  auto  accidents     • Delaying  start  of  school  can  help,  but  not  completely   o If  delay  school  an  hour,  then  problem  with  extracurricular  activities   Motor  Development   • Boys  and  girls  are  equal  in  improvements  until  puberty   o Then  boys  continue  to  increase  in  strength,  skill,  speed;  girls  often   level  off  or  decline   o Why?   § Biological  differences   § Gender  role  socialization   o Girls  who  participate  in  sports  during  childhood  and  adolescence:   § Increase  in  positive  body  image,  perceptions  of  physical   competence,  positive  “masculine”  traits  (used  to  be  seen  as   masculine  but  now  neutral:  aggressive,  leader)   § Correlated  with  higher  self-­‐esteem   Chapter  15:  Cognitive  Development  in  Adolescence     Stages  of  Cognitive  Development:  Formal  Operations  (12  and  older)   • Can  mentally  manipulate  abstract  objects/concepts   o Develop  hypotheticodeductive  reasoning:  can  make  hypothesis   about  objects/events  that  are  not  real   § Thinking  about  what  could  be     • Ex:  if  no  one  had  a  thumb,  the  world  would  change   o Develop  inductive  reasoning:  ability  to  go  from  specific  observations   to  broad  generalization   § Ex:  burnt  cookies:  think  and  test  out  variables  to  make  the   cookies  again  and  not  burnt;  test  out  one  variable  at  a  time   o Pendulum  Problem:  older  kids  understand  weight  or  length  of  string   could  be  the  problem  and  can  test  one  variable  at  a  time  and  younger   kids  cannot  understand  how  to  test  one  variable  at  a  time  and  will  test   multiple  at  one  time  which  will  disenable  them  to  figure  out  the   problem   Implications  of  Formal  Operations   • Ability  to  think  abstractly  +  increases  in  metacognition  =  broader  changes:   o Richer  understanding  of  people   o Ability  to  form  an  identity   § Can  you  imagine  yourself  as  a  number  of  different  thing   o Increased  complexity  of  though   § There  can  be  different  solutions  for  a  problem  and  imagine  a   different  future   o Ability  to  imagine  hypothetical  versions  of  reality   § Can  lead  to  confusion,  rebellion  against  “illogical  rules”,   idealism  because  able  to  imagine  an  ideal  world  versus  the   world  now  (reality)  which  can  lead  to  anger   • Adolescent  Egocentrism:  state  of  self-­‐absorption  in  which  the  world  is   viewed  from  one’s  own  point  of  view   o Imaginary  Audience:  belief  that  everyone  around  is  as  interested  in   their  thoughts  and  behaviors  as  they  are   o Personal  Fable:  part  of  adolescent  egocentrism  that  involves  feeling   special,  unique  and  invincible   § Wouldn’t  happen  to  me  because  I  am  special  and  unique     Formal  Operations   • Research  indicates  that  not  all  adults  reach  formal  operations   • More  schooling  =  more  able  to  reach  formal  operations   o Most  likely  to  show  abstract  thinking  on  areas  that  are  interesting,   relevant  to  your  life  (such  as  your  major)   o All  adults  likely  have  the  ability  to  use  formal  operations,  but  may   have  to  learn  to  do  so  through  experience   Post  Formal  Though:  Emerging  Adulthood  and  Beyond   • Ways  of  thinking  that  are  more  complex  than  formal  operational  thinking   o Relativistic  Thinking:  realizing  knowledge  is  subjective  and  relative   § Teens  are  absolutists:  there  is  only  one  truth,  correct  solution   § Adults  may  be  relativists   § Students  get  more  relativistic  during  college  years  –  there  is   not  one  absolute  truth  so  everyone  is  right  but  by  end  of   college,  pick  opinions  that  make  more  sense  with  evidence  to   support  it     Moral  Development   • Moral  Reasoning:  thinking  process  that  occurs  when  we  decide  what  is  right   or  wrong   • Kohlberg  tested  people  by  asking  how  they  would  respond  to  moral   dilemmas   o Actual  decision  is  not  as  important  as  reasons  why  they  made  the   decision   § Reason  is  what  determines  stage   • Developed  stage  theory  of  moral  development   o Cannot  skip  a  stage  or  go  back     • 3  Levels:   o Level  1:  Preconventional  Morality   § Rules  are  external  rather  than  internalized   § What  is  right  is  what  you  can  get  away  with,  what  is  personally   satisfying   • Stage  1:  Obedience  and  Punishment  Orientation   o What  is  moral  to  kids  has  to  do  with  punishment   o Punishment  if  doing  something  wrong   o Characterized  by  desire  to  avoid  punishment   o Intentions  are  ignored:  does  not  matter  if   reasons  are  good  or  bad   § Only  punishment  matters   • Stage  2:  Instrumental  Hedonism   o What  is  right  gets  you  the  most  reward   o Characterized  by  desire  to  gain  rewards  or   satisfy  needs   o Reward  more  important  than  punishment   o Level  2:  Conventional  Morality   § Guided  by  internalized  morals   • Societal  norms  are  internal   § Punishments,  rewards  become  more  abstract   • Ex:  are  other  people  going  to  see  me  as  a  good  or  bad   person;  society  continues  to  function  normally   § Typically  reached  in  early  adolescence   • Most  adults  stayed  at  this  level   • Stage  3:  “Good  Boy”  or  “Good  Girl”  Morality   o What  is  right  pleases  others   § “Meaning  well”,  being  nice  is  valued   o Intention  now  considered   o Seeking  approval,  avoiding  disapproval  now   reinforcing  factor   • Stage  4:  Authority  and  Social  Order  Maintaining  Morality   o Morality  associated  with  following  “will  of   society”,  reflected  in  laws,  social  norms   o Rigid  sense  of  right  and  wrong  based  on  law   adopted   o Conforms  to  rules  of  authority  (laws),  concerned   with  upholding  social  order  and  doing  one’s  duty   o Going  against  law  causes  chaos   o Level  3:  Postconventional  Morality   § Develop  broadly  defined  ethical  principles  not  set  by  authority   • Recognizes  laws  are  not  always  moral   • Looks  beyond  authority  to  take  perspective  of  all,   instead  of  one  social  group     o Challenge  the  law   o Understanding  legality  and  morality  sometimes   does  not  match   • Stage  5:  Social  Contract  Orientation   o One’s  conduct  is  defined  according  to  a  “social   contract”:  should  be  linked  to  common  good,  not   just  focusing  on  benefit  to  self   o People  have  basic  rights  that  we  must  prove  it   § Try  to  change  law  to  benefit  all  people   o Laws  should  be  democratic,  maximize  welfare  of   all   o If  laws  compromise  basic  human  rights,  have   moral  obligation  to  challenge  law   • Stage  6:  Morality  of  Individual  Principles  of  Conscience   o “Right”  and  “wrong”  based  on  self-­‐generated   principles     o Principles  adhered  to  regardless  of  consequence   to  individual   § Value  principles  more  than  their  own   lives   o So  rare  and  hard  to  determine,  Kohlberg  stopped   looking  it   Is  Moral  Reasoning  Related  to  Moral  Behavior?   • Not  in  early  childhood   o Even  if  know  something  is  wrong,  will  still  do  it   • Moderately  related  after  early  childhood   o Kohlberg  used  dilemmas  to  determine  level  of  morality  of  students   § Then  tempted  them  to  cheat   • Preconventional  morals:  70%  cheated   • Conventional  morals:  55%  cheated   • Postconventional:  15%  cheated   Criticisms  of  Kohlberg’s  Theory   • Western  theory  bias   o Democratic  laws  important  à  very  much  of  a  western  bias   • A  gender  biased  model  towards  men   o Logic,  rights,  abstract  thinking:  ways  men  think   o Women  will  get  stuck  at  level  3   § Despite  what  he  thought  though,  women  could  get  to  all  levels  


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