week 8 notes
week 8 notes Psych 413
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynette Walker on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 413 at University of Washington taught by Kathryn Monahan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/20/15
Week 8 Notes Intimacy and Friendship Nov 18 gt What is intimacy 0 Class sharing personal info caring etc 0 Components Emotional closeness empathy compassion understanding that people don39t have the same emotions as you understanding emotions and the nature of relationships Selfdisclosure telling them things about yourself that you normally wouldn39t Trust and loyalty mutual sharing 0 Difference between intimacy and sexuality Intimacy emotional components Sexuality Physicality gt Theory of interpersonal development 0 Theories o Sullivan39s Developmental Progression of Psychological Needs Meeting needs comfortable in social personal relationships Not meeting needs causing anxiety Each milestone experienced in order must be ful lled Preadolescent stage 0 Need for intimacy dyadic nonromantic relationship 0 quotchumquot samesex friends training wheels 0 Early Adolescent Stage 0 Need for sexual contact Starts around puberty biological changes Opposite sex intimacy sharing info about the self 0 Late Adolescent Stage 0 Need for larger integration into adult society Relationships become more adult like 0 Erikson39s view of intimacy Revisits his stage development Adolescent stage 1214 Identity vs Role Confusion Young Adulthood 2030 Intimacy vs Isolation He said you can39t have intimacy without knowing who you are rst quotIntimacyquot created before the 20 s is precocious not real intimacy gt Which Comes rst 0 Intimacy or identity They go hand in hand Sullivan focuses on the capacity of intimacy that grows as you age Erikson focuses on the expression of intimacy starting in 2039s 0 Intimacy sex difference speci cally sex roles It is fundamental for girls more than boys Girls do it better and more often more emotional Boys still know their friends mostly in shared activities Androgynous males exhibit similar intimacy levels as females Jones and Costin 1993 Socialized 0 Cultural differences Expectations males are expected to be masculine larger sex differences seen in shows of intimacy When expectations are equal expression males and females show less disparity gt Attachment 0 ln infants Relationship with caregiver and child set stage for relationships in the future They learn whether the world is a safe place or not and whether they should trust others Strange Situation Measuring 2 yr old39s reaction to mom leaving the room and mom coming back into the room Secure Attachment Sad and cries when mom leaves but is consolable happy when mom returns Avoidant Attachment Anxiety attack when mom leaves refuses closeness when mom returns Ambivalent Attachment Doesn t care whether mom leaves or returns Disorganized Attachment rarely seen mostly in abused or orphan children weird shit coping skills that does not include human comfort Criticism Attachment is not continuous low predictive validity There is individual variation 0 ln Adolescents Three types Secure healthy Avoidant keeps parents at a distance Resistant passively or actively hostile towards parents gt Attachment and adolescent behavior 0 graph Internal working model X axis types of attachment insecure vs secure Y axis conduct problems Insecure attachment when there is high maternal control there is a high prevalence of conduct problems Same with low maternal control Secure attachment High maternal control low conduct problems low maternal control high conduct problems gt Assessing Attachment 0 Adult attachment interview 35 hr interview asking to describe childhood memories O Free to evaluate secure attachment They are autonomous can evaluate themselves and others collaborative balanced descriptions about memory Dismissing ldealization of parents strong absence of childhood memories minimizes negative experiences quotI was strong it didn39t bother mequot they deny negative consequences and emphasize their own strengths Preoccupied Hyperactive excessive preoccupation of relationships unbalanced Can the AAI predict later relationships lt39s moderately reliable Secure attachments have better relationships later gt Changes in friendships O O 0000 2nCI grade friendships focused on help friends give common activities 3rd grade focused on propinquity closeness stimulation value organized play demographic similarities evaluation 4th grade acceptance incremental prior interaction 5th grade loyalty 6th grade genuineness help friends are receiver 7th grade common interests similarities in attitudes and values Companionship selfdisclosure and trust How many friends is best o It isn39t quantitative it is better to have 1 good friend than many acquaintances gt Changes in targets of intimacy O graph X axis grades 5th grade to young adult Y axis rated intimate disclosure Measured targets 0 Parents decreases and hits bottom at 10th grade slowly increases again 0 Romantic partners increases 0 Friends increases before romantic partners then at lines gt Sex differences 0 O O 0 Girls are more likely to mention selfdisclosure it is a more conscious concern Boys start the progression towards selfdisclosure later Coruminating the phenomena where girls who are intimate friends constantly share negative emotions and experiences and cause the other girls to also have feelings of anxiety depression or anger Boys cope in ways that distract themselves from the issue gt Online Intimacy 0 Reduction vs Stimulation Hypothesis Reduction Hypothesis online communication hinders pre existing friendships Stimulation Hypothesis Online communication stimulates new relationships and maintains preexisting relationships 0 There is evidence that it does maintain trust in a pre existing relationship however does not do well with creating intimacy with new relationships 0 Chat rooms Negative in uence peer rejection is prevalent in chat rooms 0 Sensitivity to rejection is stronger in girls gt Romantic relationships 0 Patterns of Dating Past Courtship Present Recreational Begins as a group activity groups of mixed sex go together to the movies or something Coupling doubledating o What is the function of dating Training wheels Socially normative Good for selfesteem and selfimage gt Dating Scripts 0 Proactive script Predominately played by Male 0 Includes 0 Initiating date 0 Deciding where to go o Controlling the public domain driving the car 0 Initiating sexual contact 0 Reactive Script Predominately played by Female 0 Includes 0 Control of private domain getting ready dresses 0 Response to gestures in the public domain 0 Response to sexual initiatives gt Romantic Relationships 0 Age of Onset School norm usuay predicts onset of dating 0 1216 girIs before boys 0 Prevalence By age 12 25 has had a romantic relationship By age 18 70 has had a romantic relationship 0 Length Usually 11 months gt Romantic relationships and crime 0 Monahan et al 2013 If the romantic partner is delinquent in behavior it will in uence the adolescent and cause an association with greater deanuency Males are in uenced by romantic partner in adolescence Females are in uenced by romantic partner during both adolescence and well into young adulthood Work and Leisure 1120 gt How do adolescents spend their time 0 Leisure Activities Girls 6 hrs Boys 7 hrs 0 It39s usually an increase in gaming and their increase in alone time 0 Time spent 30 minutes on something challenging 30 minutes on sports 30 to 60 minutes on computer 4 hrs a day on passive activities TV socializing o Purely a US phenomenon In the US 5 hrs a week is spent on HW compared to other countries leading in education 5 hrs a day gt Adolescent Work in the 20th Century 0 The general belief is that they shouldn39t have idle hands 18901920 Age of Adolescence 193039s Trend toward staying in school 1950197039s combining school with a part time job 198039s 23 of High School seniors worked during school year 199039s 80 of High school seniors worked during school year The Myth low income teens work the most because they need to help provide for their family Fact low income teens are least likely to hold down jobs during the school year If they do money usually goes to personal use gt Hypotheses about adolescent work 0 ln favor of teen employment Character building Keeps idle hands busy Teaches skills not learned in school Breaks down barriers between adolescents and adults 0 Against teen employment lnterferes with school Takes time away from more important leisure activities Exposure to unnecessary stress Nature of teen jobs teaches the wrong lessons gt Character building and keeping idle hands occupied 00000 0 graph of rst time workers having done these deviant behaviors at job 0 30 who called in sick when not 0 25 gave away products for less of free 0 20 took things from work 15 worked while high or drunk 10 put more hours on their time card 8 lied to employer to get or keep job 5 took money from work 4 purposely short changed a customer 3 purposely damaged employer s property 0 Over 60 of working teens engage in at least one type of occupational deviance after being employed for 9 months Working during the school year decreases academic engagement and increases occupational deviance gt New Skills and Breaking down barriers 0 Early adolescentjobs informal employment 0 End of High School majority ofjobs are formal 0 Teens jobs are rarely connected to the adult labor force Having a High School job does not help you get a job as an adult Causes premature af uence deviance gt Impact of work on adolescents 0 Up to 10 hrs per week of work during school year little effect on development 0 Beyond 10 hrs per week Anxiety Depression Sleep per night declines Disruptive to eating and exercise habits 0 Beyond 20 hrs per week Problems become considerably worse across the board 0 It isn39t the time that causes these issues it is the context of the activity gt Participation in Extracurricular activities 0 23 youth participate 0 Most common Athletics Music Academic interests 0 Impact on development Higher selfesteem Hard to discern correlation vs causation Increase in alcohol use mostly boys among team sports Improves connection with school 0 Routine Activity Theory Decreases adolescent delinquency if adults are routinely supervising and engaged Goes for any activity for any adult supervision parents teachers coaches community members church members gt ExtracurricularInvolvement o graph Compares highly academically competent youth marginally academically competent youth and at risk youth on the proportion of dropout rates among groups who are not involved in activities are involved in 1 and are involved in 2 or more You see an extremely signi cant decrease in dropout rates especially for atrisk youth when you compare those who did not participate in extracurriculars and those who did at least 1 Each group saw the same effect though not as signi cant gt Media usage among adolescents o 8 hrs of media usage doing one thing at once 0 O O 11 hours if you include multitasking 10 of teens play video games often enough to be pathological The video games activate the same structures in the brain that are activated for gambling and drug addicts when they are feeding their addiction It is more problematic if the kids are engaging during their alone time Kids who play video games that are violent are often more interested in violent video games to begin with gt Theories of media in uence 0 O O Cultivation theory Media shapes interests motives and beliefs about the world Uses and grati cation approach Emphasizes the active role people play in selecting media Media practice model Choose media they want but also interpret media in ways that shape their impact Selfactualized sort of approach gt Old data on teens media usage 0 O O O 2009 Use of the internet 1217 yrs old around 90 Blogging and twitter 1217 yrs old around 10 each Social networking sites 1217 yr olds 80 Texting daily 1217 yr olds 45 Research that gets nalized and published already falls behind the most current relevant information out there It39s hard to keep up with the growth in media usage 60 of shows have violence Teens witness 10000 acts of violence on TV per year There is a modest increase in violent behavior when exposed to excessive amounts of violent TV gt Huesmann et al 2003 O 0 Developmental Psychology j o u rnal 15 yr longitudinal study Age 610 in 1977 Originally 557 participants in study Reinterviewed 329 participants 15 yrs later 0 Men and women who watched aggressive TV as children were more likely as adults To push grab or shove their spouses Respond to an insult by shoving person Convicted a crime 0 The correlation was a smallmoderate signi cance gt Selection vs Socialization o graph 0 X axis hours of aggressive TV exposure 0 Y axis level of aggression in participant Males and females who had a prior history of aggression 1 hr already had low levels of aggression 3 hrs signi cant increase in the males less so in the females Males and females with no prior history of aggression 1 hr males had low levels of aggression females were lower 0 3 hrs less extreme but slightly signi cant increase in aggression gt Becker et al 2002 o Fiji a study of Fiji before and after the exposure of the TV Before 1995 bulimia was nonexistent ideal body image was thicker than US standards After 1995 Bulimia prevalence at 11 7075 said they were unhappy with their weight and were considering dieting gt Sexy media exposure 0 Steinberg amp Monahan 2011 Reanalysis of data that found that sexual media exposure was linked to sexual debut rst time having sex After accounting for selection into sexy media exposure there were no signi cant effects Effects of media exposure with respect to sexual debut is pretty null A closer to home than Hollywood issue gt Media and sex 0 Adolescents who Watch music videos 0 Are more tolerant of sexual harassment Believe TV sex is good 0 Have actual sexual experiences that are poor Consume pornography Believe the world is more sexually promiscuous Callousness toward women Trivialization of reaction to rape
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