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Week 12 of History Notes

by: William Bartek

Week 12 of History Notes HIST 1500 - 01

William Bartek
Discovering World History
Autumn Dolan

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This is week 12 of notes in history 1500, covering the Renaissance and the Reformation
Discovering World History
Autumn Dolan
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Friday November 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Autumn Dolan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Discovering World History in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 11/20/15
History 1500 The Renaissance Hundred Years War 1337 1453 0 Long term causes 0 EnglandFrance tensions going back to 1066 0 Short term causes 0 Succession crisis in France only male in the line was the king of England 0 French use Salien Law to prevent Edward I from being both king of England and France 0 Early battles favored the English 0 Longbow advantage 0 Later battles turn towards the French 0 Joan of Arc 1412 1431 0 War technology cannons and artillery changed warfare 0 French win the war begin a budding sense of nationalism Renaissance Italy 0 Rise of republicanism 0 Florence o Cosimo de Medici 1389 1464 governs Florence under a republican facade o Lorenzo the Magnificent 1469 1492 I Cosimo s son blows all the family s money on himself I Ends Medici rule of Florence 0 Venice 0 Cosmopolitan internationally accepting 0 Overseas colonies lead to a rise in slavery and Greek influence into Europe 0 Government Doge elected for life Principalities 0 After Avignon o Papal princes o Dynastic control using family for political power I Pope Alexander VI 1492 1503 0 Julius quotWarrior Pope used his army in war 0 Lose touch of what the title of Pope represents Renaissance Rome 0 Take great patronage ofthe arts in Rome 0 Leo X recreated Rome with Renaissance arts Remastered the Basilica Renaissance Family o Patriarchal family 0 Marriages mostly political large gaps between husbands and wives 0 Death in childbirth and infant mortality rate very high Intellectual Shifts o Humanism emphasis on civic duty and ethics 0 Philology and Rhetoric o Francesco Petrarch You can persuade men to be good 0 Lorenzo Valla Opens eyes of historians to truth behind medieval history Philosophy and Religion o Neoplatanism resurges to connect material to the divine o Hermeticism becomes a popular way to reach enlightenment o Pantheism God is in all of nature including humans 0 Loops back to humanism if God is in humans then human actions are divine Ethics and Education 0 Civic humanism 0 Education developed the humanities into what we know them as today 0 Renaissance man and woman focused on 0 Leon Battista Alberti expert on almost anything through his wide education Renaissance Science 0 Astronomy one of largest advancements o Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 1543 0 Galileo Galilei 1564 1642 0 Visual theory 0 Linear perspective the way 3d paintings are created on 2d canvases 0 Printing press provides launch points for new ideas to a wide audience The Reformation Early Modern State 0 Italian Wars 1494 1530 o Prerequisites to power change 0 Standing army 0 Tons of money 0 More organization than a citystate system can provide 0 Modern political theory 0 Niccolo Machiavelli wrote rules on what a prince should be titled quotThe Prince I Monarchies on the Rise 0 State system 0 Military foundational to rule Taxation necessary to fund large states Kings squelch the power of popular assemblies as monarchies rise Aristocracy also put down to not pose a threat Ambassadors become prominent in gathering intel to gain information on foreign states 0000 Foundations for Reformation o Anticlericalism was on the rise before Martin Luther entered the scene 0 Millenarian Thinking Concerns on the apocalypse 0 Christian humanists argued ethics were more important than religion 0 The printing press spread these new ideas to a larger audience 0 Protestants pick up on the printing press more than Catholics do Martin Luther 0 Background 0 Son of a miner who wanted Martin to be a lawyer 0 Martin educated well at university 0 Took religious vows after a lightning strike near him Lutheran Theology 0 Sin and salvation o Concern of penance 0 Didn t believe in Theology of Works 0 Justification by faith alone no penance needed to get into heaven Lutheran Revolt o Friar Tetzel starts collecting indulgences for the building of a church 0 Luther responds by nailing his 95 Thesis on the castle door 0 Church hierarchy threatened by Luther s teachings o If anyone can command their own faith priests weren t needed Politics of the Reformation o Territorial Princes contributed greatly to Luther s success 0 Frederick of Saxony protected Luther many times 0 Imperial Diet of Worms 1521 Luther tried by church Frederick kidnaps him for his safety Appeal of Luther s Message 0 Urban classes more literate and wanted funds diverted to themselves instead of church 0 Women took his message as a sexual revolution 0 Luther did NOT want women to be included however 0 Peasants saw Luther s message as a way to attack political complaints German Peasants War 1524 1525 0 Demand country convert selfgovernance and loss of power for nobles o Luther hates the peasants and their message calls for them to be put down Lutheran Success 0 Charles V defeated 0 Religious peace of Augsburg 1555 0 quotHe who owns the land decides the religion Diversity of Protestantism o Zurich 0 Novel reforms on scripture and iconography 0 Geneva 0 John Calvin 1509 1554 0 City of God where leaders work together for a Christian community 0 Predestination certain people were born to get into heaven I The Elect those thought to be provided salvation I People acted orderly to try and become part of the elect


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