PSYC Ch. 11 notes
PSYC Ch. 11 notes PSYC 10213
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Thursday March 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/31/16
PSYC. Ch. 11: Motivation and Work Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. Ex: Aron Ralston was motivated to cut his arm in order to free himself from a rock that pinned him down. 4 Perspectives on Motivation: 1. Instinct Theory (replaced by the evolutionary perspective) 2. Drive-Reduction Theory 3. Arousal Theory 4. Hierarchy of Motives Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned. Ex: Where the human builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. Drives and Incentives: When the instinct theory of motivation failed, it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Incentive: Where our needs push, incentives (positive or negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives. Ex: A food-deprived person who smells baking bread (incentive) feels a strong hunger drive. Optimum Arousal: Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment in the absence of a need-based drive. A Hierarchy of Motives: Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition. Hierarchy of Needs: The Physiology of Hunger: Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger. - Memory plays an important role in hunger. - Due to difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat frequently if given food. Taste Preference: Biology or Culture? Body chemistry and environmental factors influence not only when we feel hunger but what we feel hungry for! Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa: A condition in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent woman) continuously loses weight but still feels overweight. Bulimia Nervosa: A disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives, fasting, or excessive exercise. Reasons for Eating Disorders: 1. Sexual Abuse: Childhood sexual abuse does NOT cause eating disorders. 2. Family: Younger generations develop eating disorders when raised in families in which weight is an excessive concern. 3. Genetics: Twin studies show that eating disorders are more likely to occur in identical twins rather than fraternal twins. Obesity and Weight Control: Fat is an ideal form of stored energy and is readily available. In times of famine, an overweight body was a sign of affluence. Obesity: A disorder characterized by being excessively overweight. Obesity increases the risk for health issues like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and back problems. Set Point and Metabolism: When reduced from 3,500 calories to 450 calories, weight loss was a minimal 6% and the metabolic rate a mere 15%. - The obese defend their weight by conserving energy. Activity: Lack of exercise is a major contributor to obesity. Just watching TV for two hours resulted in a 23% increase of weight when other factors were controlled Food Consumption: Over the past 40 years, average weight gain has increased. Health professionals are pleading with US citizens to limit their food intake. Losing Weight: In the US, two-thirds of the women and half of the men say they want to lose weight. The majority of them lose money on diet programs. Sexual Motivation: Sexual motivation is nature’s clever way of making people procreate, enabling our species to survive. Adolescent Sexuality: When individuals reach adolescence, their sexual behavior develops. However, there are cultural differences. - Sexual promiscuity in modern Western culture is much greater than in Arab countries and other Asian countries. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Factors that reduce sexual activity in teens: 1. High Intelligence: Teens with higher intelligence are likely to delay sex. 2. Religiosity: Religious teens and adults often reserve sex for a marital commitment. 3. Father Presence: A father’s absence from home can contribute to higher teen sexual activity. 4. Learning Programs: Teens who volunteer and tutor in programs dedicated to reducing teen pregnancy are less likely to engage in unsafe sex. The Need to Belong: “[Man] is a social animal,” (Aristotle). Separation from others increases our need to belong. Ex: Tom Hanks in “Castaway” suffers from social starvation. Aiding Survival: Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rates. These bonds led to the following: 1. Protecting against predators, especially for the young. 2. Procuring food. 3. Reproducing the next offspring. Belongingness: 1. Wanting to Belong: The need to belong colors our thinking and emotions. 2. Social Acceptance: A sense of belonging with others increases our self-esteem. Social segregation decreases it. 3. Maintaining Relationships: We resist breaking social bonds, even bad ones. 4. Ostracism: Social exclusion leads to demoralization, depression, and at times nasty behavior. Achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment. *Skinner devised a daily discipline schedule that led him to become the th 20 century’s most influential psychologist. People with a high need to achieve tend to: Choose tasks that allow for success, yet Still require skill and effort, and Keep persisting until success is achieved. Sources of Achievement Motivation: Why does one person become more motivated to achieve than another? Parents and teachers have an influence on the roots of motivation. - Emotional roots: learning to associate achievement with positive emotions. - Cognitive roots: learning to attribute achievements to one’s own competence, thus raising expectations of oneself. Psychology At Work: The healthy life, said Sigmund Freud, is filled by love and work. Attitudes towards work: People have different attitudes toward work. Some take it as a: 1. Job: Necessary way to make money. 2. Career: Opportunity to advance from one position to another. 3. Calling: Fulfilling a socially useful activity. Flow & Rewards: Flow is the experience between no work and a lot of work. Flow marks immersion into one’s work. People who “flow” in their work (artists, dancers, composers etc.) are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards. Work and Satisfaction: In industrialized countries work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand. Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology: Applies psychological principles to the workplace. 1. Personnel Psychology: Studies the principles of selecting and evaluating workers. 2. Organizational Psychology: Studies how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. 3. Human Factors Psychology: Explores how machines and environments can be designed to fit our natural perception. Personnel Psychology: Personnel psychologists assist organizations at various stages of selecting and assessing employees. Organizational Psychology: Organizational psychologists look for ways to engage and motivate workers.
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